Resources to Develop Speechreading Skills
What is Speechreading?
Speechreading (often called lipreading) is the ability to perceive speech by: (1) watching the movements of a speaker's mouth, (2) by observing all other visible clues including facial expressions and gestures, and (3) using the context of the message and the situation. Used to some extent by everyone, speechreading enhances communication in noisy situations--such as a noisy airplane, subways, rock concerts, under a hair dryer--when a message cannot be understood without seeing the speaker's face. For individuals with hearing loss, however slight, the development of speechreading skills can augment communication received through diminished hearing. A hearing aid does not eliminate the need to speechread, but rather requires the user to combine hearing and seeing. Listening and speechreading work together.
Part I identifies videotapes, other resources, and books providing speechreading practice, discussions of strategies for speechreaders and suggestions for speechreaders who want to encourage speakers to become more "readable." Part II offers some suggestions for individuals trying to locate classes near them. Part III provides complete addresses for videotape sources. Information on costs of videotapes and books is available directly from the publishers.
PART I: VIDEOTAPES, RESOURCES, SELECTED BOOKS
I See What You're Saying
Beta, VHS, 1990
Volume 1: Fundamentals, 110 mins.
Shows how to identify 21 basic visible speech movements and offers strategies for understanding speech in difficult communication situations. Includes a handbook with additional practice materials corresponding to each lesson. (Handbook may be purchased in quantity.)
Volume 2: Practice, 65 mins.
Extends the demonstrations of the 21 basic visible movements of speech in Volume 1. New York League for the Hard of Hearing.
I See What You Say
Lipreading Made Easy
Beta, VHS 1986 (?)
Eighteen lessons that may be used in conjunction with the textbook of the same title for at-home practice. Alexander Graham Bell Association.
Read My Lips
Beta, VHS 6 videocassettes, 52 to 56 mins. each, 1988
Developed by a clinical audiologist, these speechreading practice tapes progressively lead students in exercises from basic common words, such as the months and days of the week, to more complex phrases and sentences, as in lengthy conversations. Each exercise is followed by a pause for the viewer to "get" or guess the proper words. Then, the correct word, phrase, or sentence is flashed in caption form before proceeding to the next exercise. Speechreading Laboratory
A series of self-instructional videotapes providing speech reading practice for everyday situations (shopping, banking, postal services) and on-the-job situations (work instructions, promotions, raises, appointments). Each videotape includes worksheets that vary in difficulty, scoring directions, and suggestions for individual instruction in speechreading. Educational Productions
Speechreading: Survival on the Job and Social Situation Sentences
VHS, 11 videotapes, 39 to 61 mins. each, 1987
This series of 11 videotapes, useful for individual or group instruction, contains seven videotapes of everyday sentences on topics such as shopping, banking, transportation and four videotapes of job-related social sentences including topics such as meeting deadlines, promotions, and break time. Worksheets for each videotape allow individuals to progress through levels of speechreading skill at an individual pace. Instruction is self-directed and thus appropriate for home practice.
VHS, 3/4-inch U-matic, 1988
This videotape teaches speechreading strategies through three real-life situations: checking out books at the library; meeting someone for the first time; and purchasing a plane ticket. Viewers first see the consequences of not using strategies in these communication situations; the same situations are then dramatized with appropriate strategies.
Each segment is captioned and dramatized for unique communication skills: Communication--The Library is for deaf people with good speechreading and speaking skills; Hello, Do I Know You? is for people with intermediate/ average speechreading and speech skills; I'd Like to Fly is for viewers with basic speechreading and speech skills, and who use some writing for conversational communication. Educational Productions.
B. Other Resources
Read My Lips: The Wild Party Game of Unspoken Words
This is a fast-moving parlor game in which players silently mouth words and phrases for their partners to guess--to speechread. A 20-second time limit on each turn keeps the game moving. The game-style approach will appeal not only to hearing impaired people but also to hearing relatives and friends. A version for teens is also available.
The manufacturer can provide information about availability in stores. Pressman Toy Corporation.
C. Resources on Speechreading Instruction
Cherry, Rochelle, and Rubinstein, Adrienne. 1988. Speechreading instructions for adults: Issues and approaches. Volta Review, 90, 289-306.
Hull, Raymond. 1976. A linguistic approach to the teaching of speech-reading: Theoretical and practical concepts. Journal of the Academy of Rehabilitative Audiology, 9, 14-19.
Kopra, L.L., Dunlop, R.J., Kopra, M.A. & Abrahamson, J.E. 1985. Computer-assisted instruction in lipreading with a laser videodisc interactive system. Paper presented at the computer conference of the American Speech-Language-Hearing Foundation. New Orleans, LA.
Sims, Donald G. 1988. Video methods for speechreading instruction. Volta Review, 90(5), 273-288.
Tye-Murray, N., Tyler, Richard S., Bong, Brian, Nares, Teresa. 1988.Computerized laser videodisc programs for training speechreading and assertive communication behaviors. Journal of the Academy of Rehabilitative Audiology, 21, 143-152.
Williams, Carol L. 1994. SEE/HEAR: An Aural Rehabilitation Training Manual. Washington, DC: Alexander Graham Bell Association.
D. Selected Books
Auerbach, Jill. 1984. One-to-one lipreading lessons for adults. Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas, Publisher.
Broberg, Rose F. 1984. The lipreaders' calendar. Washington, D.C.: Alexander Graham Bell Association for the Deaf, Inc.
Deyo, David. 1984. Speechreading in context: Functional activities for student practice. Washington, DC: Pre-College Programs, Gallaudet College.
Erber, Norman P. 1993. Communication and Adult Hearing Loss. Washington, DC: Alexander Graham Bell Association.
Erber, Norman P. 1988. Communication therapy for hearing-impaired adults. Washington, DC: A.G. Bell Association for the Deaf.
Erickson, Joan G. 1989. Speechreading: An aid to communication, (2nd Ed.). Danville, IL: Interstate Printer and Publishers.
Greenwald, Audrey E. 1984. Lipreading made easy. Washington, DC: Alexander Graham Bell Association for the Deaf, Inc.
Jeffers, Janet, and Barley, Margaret. 1971. Speechreading. Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas, Publisher.
Kaplan, Harriet, Bally, Scott, and Garretson, Carol. 1987. Speechreading: A way to improve understanding, (2nd Ed.). Washington, DC: Gallaudet University Press.
Marcus, Irving. Your eyes work for you: A self-help course in speechreading. Bethesda, MD: Self Help for Hard of Hearing People, Inc.
Ordman, Kathryn A. and Ralli, Mary Pauline. 1976. What people say: The Nitchie school basic course in lipreading. Washington, DC: Alexander Graham Bell Association for the Deaf.
Pluznik, Nehama and Sobel, Rochelle. 1968. Messy Monsters, Jungle Joggers, and Bubble Baths. Washington, DC: Alexander Graham Bell Association for the Deaf. (For elementary school students.)
PART II. FINDING SPEECHREADING CLASSES
- an otolaryngologist or audiologist
- a local hearing and speech center (or league or guild for hard of hearing people)
- a state (local) speech and hearing professional association
- a university training hospital or medical center with audiology or speech pathology programs
- senior centers
- a reference librarian at a local library
- an Easter Seal Society office
- state department of education
- state commission/office for deaf and hard of hearing people
- Alexander Graham Bell Association
PART III. SOURCES
Gallaudet University Press
800 Florida Avenue, NE
Washington, DC 20002
(202) 651-5488 TTY/Voice
(202) 651-5489 Fax
Pressman Toy Corporation
121 New England Avenue
Piscataway, NJ 08854
(732) 562-1590 Voice
(732) 562-8407 Fax
Hearing Loss Association of America
7910 Woodmont Avenue, Suite 1200
Bethesda, MD 20814
(301) 657-2248 TTY/Voice
(301) 913-9413 Fax
Speech Reading Laboratory, Inc.
P.O. Box 31882
Edmond, OK 73003-0032
(800) 433-6370 Voice