African-American/Black

African-American/Black

    (Items are alphabetized by author's last name.)

        Abrams, L. E. (1998, May). Shirley Childress Johnson, the mother of songs sung in ASL. RID Views, 15, (5), 26. (Silver Spring, MD: Registry of Interpreters of the Deaf).

Includes a brief profile about Ms. Johnson, a professional interpreter who tours with a group of female a capella singers called, "Sweet Honey in the Rock." Discusses Ms. Johnson's perspectives on how she attempts through ASL to visually express the power and emotion of music.

        Anderson, G. B. (1972). Vocational rehabilitation services and the black deaf. Journal of Rehabilitation of the Deaf, 6 (2), 126-128.

One of five papers presented as part of a symposium on Black Deaf Persons at the 4th biennial conference of Professional Rehabilitation Workers with the Adult Deaf (PRWAD) held in Washington, D.C. Article addressed issues such as need for research examining educational and employment outcomes, recruitment of Black deaf and hearing individuals to work as rehabilitation counselors, and establishment of community service centers to provide comprehensive services to deaf persons and their families.

        Anderson, G. B. & Bowe, F. G. (1972). Racism within the deaf community. American Annals of the Deaf, 617-619.

Discusses issue that racism not only occurs in the white hearing community, but also within the Deaf community. Among the concerns raised by the authors are the need for schools to providing instructional curricula and related activities to designed to help Black deaf students learn more about their heritage and the achievements of Black Americans-deaf and hearing.

        Anderson, G. B. & Grace, C. A. (1991). The black deaf adolescent: An underserved minority. In O. P. Cohen & G. Long (Eds.), Selected Issues in Adolescents and Deafness. The Volta Review, 93 (5), 73-86.

Examines the unique developmental issues that impact on adolescents who are black and deaf. The authors stressed the need for expanded research and literature related to the concerns of black deaf adolescents. Among the topics addressed are: identify issues, building positive self-images and self-esteem, the need for access to positive role models, the role and contributions of black families, adolescent sexuality issues, and issues impacting on transitions from adolescence to adulthood.

        Anderson, G. B. & Watson, D. (Eds.). (1993). The Black deaf experience: Excellence and equity. Selected Proceedings of the National Black Deaf Experience: Excellence and Equity Conference. Little Rock, AR: Rehabilitation Research and Training Center for Persons who are Deaf or Hard of Hearing, University of Arkansas.

Monograph is a collection of papers from the proceedings of a national conference held in Atlanta, GA, March 12-14, 1992. The 16 chapters focus on topics such as black deaf culture, mentoring programs for black students, and models for enhancing cultural competencies of educators working with culturally diverse deaf students.

        Anderson, G. B. (1994). Tools for a healthier, wiser black deaf community. In M. Garretson (Ed.), Deafness: Life & culture, Deaf American Monograph, 44, 1-4. (Silver Spring, MD: National Association of the Deaf).

Summary of presentation at the National Black Deaf Advocates Conference in St. Paul, MN, August, 1994. Conference theme was, "Tools for a Healthier, Wiser Black Deaf Community." Offers suggestions that can be used to guide NBDA toward achieving its conference theme goals. The suggestions included increasing investments in the production and dissemination of media and publications; expanding outreach efforts with black deaf youth in educational programs; and providing self-help to local chapters through training and technical assistance.

        Aramburo, A. (1993, June). Interpreting within the African-American community. RID Views, 12, (6), 1, 3, 8. (Silver Spring, MD: Registry of Interpreters for the Deaf, Silver Spring).

Emphasizes that in addition to skill and ability, professional interpreter also need to be aware of and sensitive to the diversity of languages and cultures that exist within the deaf community. Focusing on African-American deaf persons, author provides examples of some of the cultural subtleties that impact on interpreting for deaf persons in general and deaf African-Americans. Also discussed is the need to expand the recruitment, training, and certification of interpreters from diverse racial and ethnic groups.

        Aramburo, A. J. (1989). Sociolinguistic aspects of the black deaf community. In C. Lucas (Ed.), The sociolinguistics of the deaf community. (pp. 103-119). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.

Summarizes the results of an interview study with a sample of 60 black students attending the Model Secondary School for the Deaf (MSSD) and Gallaudet University in Washington, D.C. The purpose of the study was to obtain insight regarding identity issues related to being black and deaf. Also discussed were the differences in the socialization experiences between the group of respondents who identified themselves ad Deaf first compared to those who identified themselves as Black first.

        Aramburo, A. & McAllister, E.(1986). Interpreting for southern black deaf. In M. McIntire (Ed.), Interpreting: The art of cross-cultural mediation. (pp. 107-110). Proceedings of the Ninth National Convention of the Registry of Interpreters for the Deaf. Silver Spring, MD. RID Publications.

Describes nature of "black signing" used by black deaf individuals in Louisiana, particularly those who attended the Louisiana School for Black Deaf Students prior to integration of the white and black deaf schools in 1978. To familiarize interpreters with interpreting for black deaf persons in Louisiana, differences between "black signing" and "white signing" are discussed.

        Azodeh, E. (1994, March). A sign of African-American pride. The Silent News, 26,3.

Discusses the various ways the American Deaf community uses signs for Africa. The author briefly discusses the history and tradition of the original sign for Africa as used in deaf communities in Africa. As a way to foster pride and self-esteem, preference for the original sign is advocated since it symbolizes the profile of the face (i.e., the African mother) and Africa as the continent where the first civilizations began. Illustrations are use to illustrate the appropriate and inappropriate ways to use the sign.

 

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        Bishop State Community College (1999). African American/black deaf/hard of hearing & African American/black interpreters/transliterators: Partial listings of articles, books, publications, national organizations, and videotapes. Mobile, AL: American Sign Language/Interpreter Training Programs, Bishop State Community College.

Compilation with brief annotations of publications and videotapes by and about black deaf Americans and black sign language interpreters.

Bowe, F. G. (1972). Role of the paraprofessional in inner city services to deaf persons. Journal of Rehabilitation of the Deaf, 6(2), 120-122.

One of five papers presented as part of a symposium on Black Deaf Persons at the 4th biennial conference of the Professional Rehabilitation Workers with the Adult Deaf (PRWAD) held in Washington, D.C. Article focused on shortage of trained personnel to provide rehabilitation and related services to black deaf persons residing within an urban area's "inner city." To address the personnel shortage issues, one of the suggested strategies was to recruit and train black deaf individuals for employment in paraprofessional roles.

        Brooks, D. K. (1996). In search of self: Experiences of a postlingually deaf African-American. In I. Parasnis (Ed.), Cultural and Language Diversity and the Deaf Experience (pp. 246-257). New York: Cambridge University Press.

The author reflected on her experience of suddenly becoming deaf at the age of 12 while sitting in class engaged in a social studies lesson. Her childhood life had centered around a close-knit family including many extended family members in a neighborhood populated only by other African Americans. Among the many treasured memories of her experiences prior to becoming deaf were her maternal grandmother's stories about her own childhood and the prejudices she encountered as the daughter of a Native American mother and African American father. The author describes the various phases she evolved through from seeking a medical diagnosis, to experiencing rejection and isolation among hearing peers in school, to encountering the "Deaf world" at age 18 and eventually finding that as a former hearing person who raised in African American culture she was unable, at that time, to resolve her inner conflicts about her deafness and being part of a predominately white Deaf culture. Only years later was she able to reconcile her inner conflicts and attain a sense of acceptance.

 

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        Callaway, T. & Tucker C. M. (October/November/December1986). Rehabilitation of deaf black individuals: Problems and intervention strategies. Journal of Rehabilitation, 53-56.

Examined education, socialization, and employment-related barriers encountered by black deaf individuals. Six intervention strategies were proposed as possible ways to address the problems. Four of the strategies were: (1) increase rehabilitation research focused on black deaf populations, (2) train rehabilitation professionals to effectively communicate with persons whose communication preferences include use of non-standard speech and sign language communication styles, (3) involve the black family and community in the rehabilitation process, and (4) recruit and involve black deaf persons in rehabilitation organizations and programs.

        Carroll, C. (1999, September/October). Evon Black: Giving back through drama. World Around You, p.p. 6-9. (Washington, D.C.: Clerc National Deaf Education Center, Gallaudet University).

Profile of Ms. Black's childhood experiences growing up in a black church with her family and as a student who attended the Arkansas School for the Deaf in the 1970's and Gallaudet University during the 1980's. She discusses how she discovered her talent for imitating people and making people laugh. In addition, she also performs a one-woman show throughout the U.S. Many of the stories she uses in her performances are based on her childhood experiences involving her mother and the black church.

        Carroll, C. (1997, March/April). CJ Jones: The heart of a performer. The World Around You, 18, 8-9. (Washington, D.C.: Clerc National Deaf Education Center, Gallaudet University).

Profile of professional actor and comedian Charles "CJ" Jones. Mr. Jones is currently Executive Director of Hands Across America Communications which produces educational and family oriented videotapes and media programs. Profile provides insight into his childhood experiences growing up in St. Louis, MO as a child of black deaf parents. This is one of the very few published sources of information available about the childhood experiences of black deaf youth with deaf parents.

        Carroll, C. (1995, May/June). From Zululand to Washington, D.C.: Human rights leader sees work in USA. The World Around You, pp. 5 & 10. (Washington, D.C.: Clerc National Deaf Education Center, Gallaudet University).

An interview with Lindsay Dunn, Special Assistant to the President for Diversity and Community Relations at Gallaudet University. Shares experiences growing up and attending a school for deaf students during the time of Apartheid in South Africa.

        Cohen, O. P. (1990). Current and future needs of minority hearing-impaired children and youth. In G. B. Anderson & D. Watson (Eds.), Habilitation and rehabilitation of hearing-impaired adolescents in the mainstream. (pp. 261-273). Little Rock, AR: Rehabilitation Research and Training Center for Persons who are Deaf or Hard of Hearing, University of Arkansas.

Examines the social realities and dynamics of black and Hispanic families with deaf children. Discusses issues within and outside of schools for deaf students that impact on the educational development of black and Hispanic/Latino deaf children. Ways in which ethnic and cultural diversity can be addressed through school policies and practices are also discussed.

        College for Continuing Education. (1992). Empowerment and black deaf persons. Proceedings of the Empowerment and Black Deaf Persons Conference. Washington, DC: College for Continuing Education, Gallaudet University.

Includes 11 papers from the proceedings of a national conference, held at Lehman College of the City University of New York in April, 1990. Among the themes addressed at the conference were: leadership and advocacy, black deaf people in higher education, and sociolinguistic aspects of the black deaf community.

        Corbett, C. (1999). Mental health issues for African American deaf people. In I. Leigh (Ed.), Psychotherapy with deaf clients from diverse groups (pp. 151-176). Washington, D.C.: Gallaudet University Press.

Describes the mental health issues that impact on the lives of African Americans who ar deaf. Provides a summary of the worldview of this target population as influenced by four major issue: racism, economics, spirituality, and the physical/mental health relationship. Presents a home-based approach of providing psychotherapy services as a useful model for responding to the mental health needs of deaf African Americans and their families.

        Crockett, M. H. & Dease-Crockett, B. (1990). Through the years 1867-1977-Light out of darkness: A history of the North Carolina School for the Negro blind and the deaf. Raleigh, N.C.: Barefoot Press.

Describes the history of the first separate state school for black blind and deaf students established in the U.S. beginning in 1867. This historical book includes numerous photos derived from annual school yearbooks published by the school between 1959 and 1970.

 

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        Dunn, L. M. (1998). The deaf community in the 21st century: A black deaf perspective.   Deaf studies V: Toward 2000-Unity and diversity, Conference proceedings (pp. 122-128), Washington, D.C.: College for Continuing Education, Gallaudet University.

Shares personal observations regarding the impact of diversity on the American Deaf community in the 21st century. Discusses issues and challenges for deaf people and deaf people of color across the following topical areas: education, economics, advocacy and public policy, culture, and developments with the international deaf community.

        Dunn, L. M. (1995). Education, culture and community: The black deaf experience. In M. Garretson Ed.), Deafness: Life & culture II. Deaf American Monograph, Vol. 43, 37-41. (Silver Spring, MD: National Association of the Deaf).

Commentary on a range of issues that impact on the lives of black deaf people. Includes historical overview of the earliest efforts to establish schools for black deaf students in the U.S.; identified school administrators that are demonstrating commitments to enhancing diversity; and comments on racism as experienced by American black deaf persons and black deaf persons who immigrate to the U.S. from countries where they did not experience racism.

        Dunn, L. M. (1990, August). The African-American deaf community-alive, growing-and invisible? Deaf Life, 24-29.

In an entertaining and conversational style, author comments on several positive developments occurring in the black deaf community such as the growth of National Black Deaf Advocates (NBDA). He also identifies several areas in which significant progress has not occurred. They include expanding the number of deaf African Americans in leadership and decision making roles and increasing advocacy efforts on behalf of the African American deaf community.

  

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       Fischgrund, J. E., Cohen, O. P. & Clarkson, R. L. (1987). Hearing-impaired children in black and hispanic families. In O. P. Cohen & G. Long (Eds.), The Volta Review, 86, (5), 59-67.

Provides an overview of the changing demographics of the American population, in general, and among families and students being served by educational programs for the deaf. Stresses that attention must be given to ensuring that educators and other professional personnel have access to training and staff development to acquire skills and sensitivity to work with families of deaf students from diverse racial and ethnic backgrounds. Addresses some of the social realities faced by black and Hispanic/Latino families, challenges these families face parenting their deaf children, and the implications of receiving appropriate educational services from schools for deaf students.

        Gallaudet University (1987). Class of '52. Washington, D.C.: Department of TV, Film, & Photography, Gallaudet University.

Historical Video produced by Gallaudet University about the first group of black students to enroll at Kendall School on the Gallaudet Campus. Because school segregation was prevalent in Washington, D.C. during that time, this group of students, who came to be known as the class of '52, were taught in separate facilities on the Gallaudet campus. They did not attend classes with white students in the Kendall School building. The video also provides an overview of the history of separate state schools for black students.

 

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        Hairston, E. & Smith, L. (1983). Black and deaf in America: Are we that different? Silver Spring, MD: T.J. Publishers.

Book provides an overview of the education, social and cultural experiences of the American black deaf community. It also includes several brief profiles of black deaf professionals, educators, and community leaders. Numerous photos are interspersed throughout the book.

        Hall, C. (1998). The association between racelessness and achievement among African American deaf adolescents. American Annals of the Deaf, 143, (1), 55-64.

This study sought to identify factors that contribute to academic success among African American deaf students by attempting to replicate a previous research study conducted on hearing African American high students. The findings of the previous research study supported its hypothesis that the concept of "racelessness" was a factor associated with higher achievement levels of African American hearing students. Racelessness was defined being able to exhibit behavior that identifies strongly with the dominant white culture rather than one's particular ethnic culture (i.e., African American/Black culture). Data for this study were collected on 32 black deaf students from 6 public school programs serving deaf students. Data were obtained through the use of a likert scale questionnaire, and academic and sociodemographic information obtained on each student at their respective schools. No statistically significant relationships were found between racelessness and the academic achievement success of African American deaf students.

        Heard-Dunn, P. (1998). Racelessness a difficult characterization. American Annals of the Deaf, 143, (4), 293-295.

The author presented a critique of Hall's (1998) study which evaluated the association between racelessness and achievement among African American deaf adolescents. Several limitations of the study were discussed. Among the limitations discussed was that the scale used to measure racelessness reflected a narrow and stereotypical view of African American culture and that its face validity was questionable. A second limitation was teacher variables were not considered in the study as factors that contribute to the academic achievement of the students. On a concluding note, the author emphasizes that professionals and researchers should utilize greater caution when adopting for deaf children various theoretical principles, models, and instruments designed primarily for hearing children.

        Holcomb, M. & Wood, S. (1989). Black deaf. In Deaf women: A parade through the decades. Berkeley, CA: Dawn Sign Press.

Profile on the role and contributions of black deaf women. Includes brief profiles of Carolyn McCaskill-Emerson, Shirley Allen, Katie Brown, Mary Lynch Van Manen, Ida Gray Hampton, and Nathie Mabry.


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       Johnstone, M. (1990, Fall). Learning to communicate. A parent faces her son's deafness with strength and involvement. Gallaudet Today, 18-21.

Describes the experiences of an African American mother, Leslie Proctor, raising a deaf son. Through her experiences, Ms. Proctor also began a career for herself in the field of education of deaf children and has maintained a lifelong interest in the advocacy for needs of deaf children and their parents, particularly those who are African American..

        Jones, P. A. (1986). Issues involving black interpreters and black deaf. In M. L. McIntire (Ed.), Interpreting: The art of cross-cultural mediation (pp. 85-95). Proceedings of the Ninth National Convention of the Registry of Interpreters for the Deaf. Silver Spring, MD: RID Publications.

Discusses issues that impact on the provision of interpreting services to black deaf persons. Identifies and discusses some of the concerns and discomfort white interpreters may experience working in interpreting situations involving black deaf persons. Advocates for the recruitment and training of more black interpreters as well as increased emphasis on cross-cultural training to help prepare white interpreters to work in cultural situations different from their own.

    Jones, R. C. & Kretschmer, L. W. (1988). The attitudes of parents of black hearing-impaired students. American Speech-Language-Hearing Association, 19, (1), 41-50.

Parents of 46 black deaf and hard of hearing students were surveyed regarding their attitudes, feelings, and knowledge about their child's hearing loss and educational programs. The findings indicated that many of the parents are highly satisfied with their children's educational programs, but involve themselves only minimally in the formal educational process. Also, the findings revealed that many of these parents were unfamiliar with many of the methods and procedures commonly used by teachers, when working with deaf and hard of hearing students. The findings, to some extent, are contradictory, since the parents apparently hold "favorable" attitudes toward their children's educational programs yet did not appear to demonstrate active involvement or participation in the programs. Furthermore, little attention was given to discussing the apparent limitations of the study.

 

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        Kelley, B. (2000, January/February). Curtis Pride: An interview with a professional baseball player, an all-around athlete, plus a profound hearing loss from birth. Hearing Loss, 21, (1), 15-18. (Bethesda, MD: Self-Help for Hard of Hearing People).

A profile and interview with Curtis Pride, who is African American and has been profoundly deaf since birth. His is the only known deaf person currently playing professional baseball and has done so since 1992. Interview focuses on his experiences with professional baseball managers, teammates, and the media.

        Kremp, A. K. (1996). A visit to South Africa. In M. Garretson (Ed.), Deafness: Historical perspectives. A Deaf American Monograph, Vol. 46, pp. 65-68. (Silver Spring, MD: National Association of the Deaf).

The author, a deaf student majoring in deaf education at the University of Hamburg (Germany), summarized her experiences participating in a four-week practicum at a school for the deaf in Cape Town, South Africa. Among her observations are that quality of deaf education in South Africa, especially for black deaf children is very poor. She also noted that white deaf people tend not to socialize or have much contact with black or colored deaf persons. Among her concluding comments were an expression of optimism about the future for deaf people in South Africa, in part, because of there are more than four million deaf people living in South Africa.

        Krentz, C. (1996). Historical parallels between the African American and deaf American communities. In M. Garretson (Ed.), Deafness: Historical perspectives. A Deaf American Monograph, Vol. 46, pp. 69-74. (Silver Spring, MD: National Association of the Deaf).

Author emphasized that there were many parallels between the issues surrounding the Deaf President Now Protest that occurred at Gallaudet in 1988 and the African American struggle for civil rights during the 1950's and 1960's. Among the many historical parallels identified by the author are that both groups have been denied access to the status and benefits of society by a majority that viewed them as inferior; both have formed their own educational and community institutions and begun to assert and maintain their own ethnic cultures within the majority culture; and both have had to struggle and fight for their rights and battle external threats to the survival and maintenance of their communities.

 

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        Luetke-Stahlman, B. (1983). Recruiting black teacher-trainees into programs for the hearing impaired. American Annals of the Deaf, 851-852.

Summarized the results of a survey randomly sent to school programs serving deaf students that employed more than 100 staff. Survey sought information on suggestions for improving the recruitment of more black college students into the field of deaf education. Study also sought information on reasons black college students may not choose to enter a career in deaf education. A majority of the respondents indicated it was due to student unfamiliarity with the field and/or lack of awareness of career opportunities in the deaf education field. The article concluded with a list of suggestions to enhance recruitment of black college students for careers in the field of deaf education.

        Magness, J. (1972). The main problem of black deaf people: Education. Journal of Rehabilitation of the Deaf, 6, (2), 123-125.

One of five papers presented as part of a symposium on black deaf persons at the 4th biennial conference of Professional Rehabilitation Workers with the Adult Deaf (PRWAD) held in Washington, D.C., April, 1972. Author shared personal experiences as a teacher working in a separate school for black deaf students in the South. Discusses the inferior education received by the students and the misconceptions of white professionals that black deaf people are not positively oriented toward work.

        Marshall, A. D. (1988). A black deaf artist reflects on his journey into the field of advertising design. In R. G. Brill (Ed.), Proceedings of the National Conference on Deaf and Hard of Hearing People: Fort Monroe Revisited. (Pp. 130-135). Silver Spring, MD: TJ Publishers.

Mr. Marshall provides insight into his experiences and career as an artist in the predominately white field of advertising design. He was initially influenced by his father who was also a talented artist. Also discussed are the obstacles and discrimination he encountered attempting to obtain employment as an artist even after being ranked in the top 10 in his class at the Art Institute of Chicago. Through the assistance of the St. Louis Urban League, Mr. Marshall obtained employment at Universal Match Company in 1948 and worked at the same company for 38 years until his retirement in 1986.

        Martin, J. E., & Pricket, H. T. (1992, March/April). Black deaf children: Culture and education. Perspectives in Education and Deafness, 14, 1-6.

Offers strategies to assist teachers in meeting the educational needs of black deaf students. The strategies include those that address issues related to attitudes of teachers and peers, supportive school environment, and involvement of the family and community.

        Mathers, C. & White, P. (1986). Cross-cultural, Cross-racial mediation. In M. L. McIntire (Ed.), Interpreting: The art of cross-cultural mediation (pp. 97-106). Proceedings of the Ninth National Convention of the Registry of Interpreters of the Deaf. Silver Spring, MD: RID Publications.

Discusses importance of cultural mediation during the interpreting process and suggests the use of a four-step mediation model for interpreters. It focuses on the dynamics of being a white interpreter working in a majority black metropolitan area. The model is presented to assist interpreters who find themselves in unfamiliar or uncomfortable cross-cultural situations engage in a problem-solving process that can lead to satisfactory interpreting outcomes.

        Maxwell, M. M. & Smith-Todd, S. (1986). Black sign language and school integration in Texas. Language in Society, 15, 81-94.

Presents some of the differences between the sign language of black deaf persons educated before and since racial integration of deaf schools in Texas and relates these differences to educational policies. Evidence is also provided as to the awareness of these differences in signing and of educational policies on the part of teachers before and after integration.

        Moore, M. & Levitan, L. (Eds.). (1995, October). Shirley Allen, the first black deaf woman to earn a doctorate. Deaf Life, 10-17.

Profile of Dr. Shirley Allen, an Associate Professor at NTID's Department of Liberal Arts. Describes her early years growing up in Nacogdoches, Texas and experiences becoming deaf at age 20 while majoring in Music Education in college. It concludes with a summary of her professional career and achievements.

        Moore, M. & Levitan, L. (Eds.).(1991, April). Reginald Redding: An overwhelming sense of commitment. Deaf Life, 10-15.

Profile of Reginald Redding, the first black deaf person hired in a top executive position at Lexington School for the Deaf in New York. He was hired as Director of Educational Support Services. Provides a summary of his experiences growing up in Trenton, NJ, attending NJ School for the Deaf, and Gallaudet University. Discusses his perspectives regarding the challenges schools face attempting to respond to the educational and cultural needs of black deaf students.

        Moores, D. F. & Oden, Jr., C. W. (1977). Educational needs of black deaf children. American Annals of the Deaf, 122, (3), 313-318.

Article emphasizes that approximately 150 years of demographic research have historically underestimated the incidence of deafness in the black population compared to the white population. The authors assert that the consequences of these inaccurate assumptions were a general underestimation of the nature and scope of the educational needs of black deaf children. Several recommendations are offered such as those related to early identification, recruitment of teachers from culturally diverse racial/ethnic backgrounds, and greater investments in staff development and teacher training.

 

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       Pringle, S. (1999). Deaf and African American children. Kent, Ohio: Deaf Education Program, Kent State University, www.edu.kent.edu/deafed

Web-based portfolio with information and resources for and about deaf African Americans, particularly children. Organized into questions with responses derived from summative reviews of the literature. Sample questions include: What does it mean to be Deaf and African American? Are professionals meeting the cultural needs of these children? What organizations are available to assist in services and information?

        Schein, J. D. & Delk, M. T. (1974). Special meeting on the identification of black deaf persons for the National Census of the deaf population (pp. 215-221). The deaf population of the United States. Silver Spring: Maryland. National Association of the Deaf.

Report of a meeting convened by the National Census of the Deaf staff with representatives from the American Black Deaf community. Goal was to obtain recommendations for identifying and enlisting the support and participation of black deaf individuals in the National Census of the Deaf survey. Topics discussed included limitations and problems with previous survey efforts and a summary of the recommendations from the meeting participants.

        Seabon, P. (1992, Fall). The black deaf experience. Striving for excellence and equity in education. NTID Focus. 12-15.

Highlights some of the educational issues discussed at the black deaf conference held in Atlanta, Georgia. Educators at the conference offered some suggestions for increasing black deaf students' success in the academic environment.

        Smith, L. (1972). Work-study programs and black deaf people. In the Journal of Rehabilitation of the Deaf, 6, (2), 116-119.

One of five papers presented as part of a symposium on Black Deaf Persons at the 4th biennial conference of the Professional Workers with the Adult Deaf (PRWAD) held in Washington, D.C. Paper focused on the use of on-the-job training as potential strategies for helping black students make transitions from school to the world of work. Model programs were considered those that involve schools, VR, and employers as collaborators.

        Smith, L. (1972). The hard core negro deaf adult in the Watts area of Los Angeles, California. Journal of Rehabilitation of the Deaf, 6,1, 11-18.

Reports on an interview with a small sample of black deaf individuals residing in the Watts area of Los Angles. Data were obtained on educational background, economic status, employment history, and method of communication. The author noted that most of the respondents, even though they resided the same community within, did not know one another, had very little social interaction with other deaf people, and outside of their immediate families, had little social contact with the hearing community of Watts. Data on the number who were either employed or unemployed was not reported. Most were not aware of agencies or programs where they could obtain assistance and when informed of the availability of VR services, they appeared reluctant to seek help.

        Stuart, P. & Corbett, C. A. (1992). The state of the University from a black deaf perspective. In M. Garretson (Ed.), Viewpoints on deafness. A Dea American Monograph.(pp. 145-150)., vol. 42. (Silver Spring, MD: National Association of the Deaf).

Reports on two research studies conducted with black students attending Gallaudet University during the 1990-91 academic year. A major conclusion from the two studies was that while Gallaudet offers an environment that is positive for deaf students in general, it does not adequately attend to the social support needs of deaf students who are not members of the white majority cultural group. In addition, to successfully earn a degree, black students must demonstrate considerable persistence and be prepared to make long personal and financial commitments. Several recommendations were offered to enhance the social support network and retention of black and other culturally diverse deaf students.

 

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        Taft, B. (1983). Employability of Black Deaf Persons in Washington, DC: National Implications. American Annals of the Deaf, 453-457.

Reports on assessment of employment trends of black deaf clients rehabilitated during that time. The study sought to determine (a) if the minority group status of race affected employment, (b) if gender affected employment, (c) if age affected employment, (d) if jobs obtained were representative of all occupational categories or remained stereotypic, (e) if previous work experience or training was related to the types of jobs obtained, and (f) if certain common social factors may have affected employment status.

        University of Arkansas at Little Rock (1999). The legacy of Eliza Taylor. Little Rock, AR: Region VI Interpreter Training Project, University of Arkansas at Little Rock.

Includes a video interview with Ms. Eliza Taylor, who attended school in the Colored Department at the Arkansas School for the Deaf (ASD) from 1919 to 1928. At time Ms. Taylor was interviewed, she was 92 years old and was recognized as the oldest living alumnus from the Colored Department of ASD.

        Valentine, V. (1996, January). Listening to deaf blacks. They want community access and acceptance. Emerge. 56-61.

Article published in Emerge, a magazine marketed to the general African-American community. Attempts to acquaint the hearing African-American community with the history of National Black Deaf Advocates and provides brief profiles of several African-American deaf leaders and achievers. Addresses some of the concerns of deaf African-Americans such as those related to access and opportunities to participate in the activities of national organizations such as the NAACP, the Black Family Reunion sponsored by the National Council of Negro women, and the many musical concerts that feature prominent black entertainers.

 

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        Woodward, J. (1985, September). Black deaf teachers--short supply. Perspectives for teachers of the hearing impaired, 4, (1), 18-19.

Author attempted to determine the number of black deaf teachers working in educational programs serving deaf students. Data from the national surveys of teachers of the deaf conducted by the Gallaudet University Research during the early 1980's were reanalyzed by the author. Only 14 of the teachers were identified as black deaf individuals and most were employed in schools in the located in the south. Implications of black deaf students limited exposure to black deaf adult teacher role models were presented.

        Woodward, J. (1976). Black southern signing. Language and Society, 5, 211-218.

Reports on research comparing signs used by a group of black deaf individuals with those used by a group of white deaf individuals. The research participants were residents of Georgia. The results indicated the presence of a unique sign language variety or dialect that varied from that used by the white deaf signers. This finding was attributed, in part, to the existence of separate schools for black and white deaf students in several southern states, including Georgia, from the early 1880's to the early 1970's.

        Wright, M. H. (1999). Sounds like home: Growing up black and deaf in the south. Washington, D.C.: Gallaudet University Press.

An autobiography that chronicles the life experiences of Mary Herring Wright, a black woman who became deaf at 10 years old. The book provides descriptive information about the faculty and staff at a segregated school for black deaf students, North Carolina School for the Deaf and Blind in Raleigh. The experiences she shares, as a student and later as a student teacher, covers two important events in American history-the Great Depression and World War II. She also provides insight into the school's curriculum which included a week-long black history celebration where students learned about important black achievers and historical figures.

    Younkin, L. (1990, January/February). Between two worlds. The Disability Rag, 30-33.

Summarizes the perspectives and experiences of professionals and community advocates from the black deaf community. Article emphasized that many black deaf individuals often feel excluded from the larger community of deaf people and are generally not receiving the same educational, vocational, socioeconomic opportunities as their white deaf peers. Also addressed were the barriers black deaf people encounter accessing and participating in organizations and activities sponsored in the larger black hearing community such as plays, concerts, lectures, and advocacy organization meetings.

 

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