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Reference List

Cochlear Implant Education Center

Revised February 2009

Early Language:

Courtin, C. (2000). The impact of sign language on the cognitive development of deaf children: The case of theories of mind. Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Grosjean, F. (2008). The bilingualism and biculturalism of the deaf. Studying Bilinguals. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Kuhl, P. (2004, November). Early language acquisition: Cracking the code. Nature Reviews/Neuroscience. 5. http://biology.kenyon.edu/courses/biol358/Butcher/Early%20Language%20Kuhl.pdf

Meadow-Orlans, K., Spencer, P., & Koester, L. (2004). The world of the deaf infant. New York: Oxford University Press.

Schick, B., de Villiers, J., de Villiers, P., & Hoffmeister, B. (2002, December). Theory of mind: Language and cognition in deaf children. The ASHA Leader Online, 22. http://www.asha.org/Publications/leader/2002/021203/f021203.htm

Sign2Me. (2009).Supporting research. http://www.sign2me.com/research.php

Snoddon, K. (2008, June). American Sign Language and early intervention. The Canadian Modern Language Review. http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/cml/v064/64.4.snoddon.html

Spencer, P., & Harris, M. (2006). Patterns and effects of language input to deaf infants and toddlers from deaf and hearing mothers. In M. Marschark & P. Spencer (Eds.), Advances in the sign language development of deaf children (pp. 71-101). New York: Oxford University Press.

Age of Implantation:

McConkey Robbins, A., Burton Koch, D., et al. (2004). Effect of age of cochlear implantation on auditory skill development in infants and toddlers. Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15148178

Nicholas, J. G., & Geers, A. E. (2006, June). Effects of early auditory experience on the spoken language of deaf children at 3 years of age. Ear & Hearing, 27(3):286-298. http://www.ear-hearing.com/pt/re/earhearing/abstract.00003446-200606000-00008.htm;jsessionid=Hx2fWZ2Rw2KQxK20Q6ny8snMbCLpVv0XHb19FpHGvlmYpTHL6pBv!-809317659!181195629!8091!-1

Nicholas, J. G., & Geers, A. E. (2007). Will they catch up? The role of age at cochlear implantation in the spoken language development of children with severe to profound hearing loss. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 50, 1048–1062.

Quittner, A., & Leibach. P. (2004, May). The impact of cochlear implants on young deaf children. Archives of Otolaryngology, 130. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uids=151481

Spencer, P. (2004). Individual differences in language performance after cochlear implantation at one to three years of age: Child, family, and linguistic factors. Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education, 9, 395-412.

Svirsky, M. A., Teoh, S. W., & Neuburger, H. (2004). Development of language and speech perception in congenitally, profoundly deaf children as a function of age at cochlear implantation. Audiology Neurolotology, 9(4), 224-233.

Waltzman, S., & Roland, T. (2005, October). Cochlear implantation in children younger than 12 months. Pediatrics, 116(4). http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/cgi/content/full/116/4/e487

Neural Plasticity:

Sharma, et.al. (2002). A sensitive period for the development of the central auditory system in children with cochlear implants: Implications for age of implantation. Ear and Hearing. 23(6), 532-539. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12476090

Sharma, A., Dorman, M., & Kral, A. (2005). The influence of a sensitive period on central auditory development in children with unilateral and bilateral cochlear implants. Hearing Research, 203, 134-143. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6T73-4F9SY7X-2&_user=1098908&_rdoc=1&_fmt=&_orig=search&_sort=d&view=c&_acct=C000051616&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=1098908&md5=818c7e3bdf6d1a858fce08a4ca1d1aaa

Sharma, A., Tobey, E., Dorman, M., Martin, K., et al. (2004). Central auditory maturation and babbling development in infants with cochlear implants. Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, 130(5), 511-6. http://www.colorado.edu/slhs/eeglab/pdfs/Bauer2006.pdf

Use of Sign Language:

ASL-Cochlear Implant Community, http://aslci.blogspot.com/

Connor, C. M., Hieber, S., Arts, H. A., & Zwolan, T. A. (2000). Speech, vocabulary, and the education of children using cochlear implants: Oral or total communication? Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 43, 1185-1204. http://jslhr.asha.org/cgi/content/abstract/43/5/1185

Connor, C., & Zwolan, T. (2004). Examining multiple sources of influence of the reading comprehension skills of children who use cochlear implants. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research. 47, 509-26.

Cummins, J. (2006). The relationship between American Sign Language proficiency and English academic development: A review of the research. http://clerccenter.gallaudet.edu/CIEC/documents/CumminsASL-Eng_000.pdf

DesGeorges, J. (2004). Spoken language gets a piggyback ride on language in any modality. Excerpted from Christine Yoshinag-Itano, Hands and Voices. http://www.handsandvoices.org/articles/early_intervention/V8-2_yoshi_excerpts.htm

Moeller, M. (2006). Use of sign with children who have cochlear implants: A diverse set of approaches. Sign of the (Changing) Times, Loud and Clear newsletter, Advanced Bionics Corporation. http://www.advancedbionics.com/content/dam/ab/Global/en_ce/documents/libraries/SupportLibrary/Newsletters/Loud%20and%20Clear/A%20Sign%20of%20the%20Changing%20Time%20Part%20II.pdf

Petitto, L. A., & Holowka, S. (2002) Evaluating attributions of delay and confusion in young bilinguals: Special insights from infants acquiring a signed and a spoken language. http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/sign_language_studies/v003/3.1petitto.pdf

Petitto, L. A., Katerelos, M., Levy, B., et al. (2001). Bilingual signed and spoken language acquisition from birth: Implications for mechanisms underlying bilingual language acquisition. Journal of Child Language, 28 (2), 1-44. Reprinted with the permission of Cambridge University Press.

Petitto, L. A., & Kovelman, I. (2003, Spring). The bilingual paradox: How signing-speaking bilingual children help us to resolve it and teach us about the brain’s mechanisms underlying all language acquisition. Learning Languages, 8(3), 5-18.

Spencer, L. J., & Bass-Ringdahl, S. (2004). An evolution of communication modalities: Very young cochlear implant users who transitioned from sign to speech during the first years of use. International Congress Series, 1273, 352-355 Elsevier. http://www.uiowa.edu/clrc/pdfs/evolution-ci.pdf

Language and Literacy:

Bilinguistics, Inc. (2007). Development of speech in children with cochlear implantswww.pediastaff.com/uploads/resources/abad_0705.pdf

Conner, C. M., & Zwolan, T. (2004, June). Examining multiple sources of influence on the reading comprehension of children who use cochlear implants. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 47, 509-526. http://jslhr.asha.org/cgi/content/abstract/47/3/509

Fagen, M., Pisoni, D., Horn, D., & Dillon, C. (2007, Fall). Neuropsychological correlates of vocabulary, reading, and working memory in deaf children with cochlear implants. Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education, 12(4). http://jdsde.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/reprint/12/4/461

Geers, A. E. (2002, July). Factors affecting the development of speech, language and literacy in children with early cochlear implantation. Language, Speech, Hearing Services in the Schools, 33, 172-183. http://lshss.asha.org/cgi/content/abstract/33/3/172

Geers, A. E. (2003, February). Predictors of reading skill development in children with early cochlear implantation. Ear & Hearing. 24(1).

Geers, A. E. (2004). Speech, language, and reading skills after early cochlear implantation. Archives of Otolaryngology-l Head Neck Surgery, 130, 634-638. http://archotol.ama-assn.org/cgi/content/abstract/130/5/634

Geers, A. E., Nicholas, J. G., & Sedey, A. L (2003, February). Language skills of children with early cochlear implantation. Ear & Hearing. 24(1).

Lederberg, A., & Spencer, P. (2009). Word-learning abilities in deaf and hard-of-hearing preschoolers. Effect of lexicon size and language modality. Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education, 14,44-62.

Marschark, M., Rhoten, C., & Fabich, M. (2007, May). Effects of cochlear implants on children's reading and academic achievement. Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education Advance Access. http://jdsde.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/full/enm013v1

Niparko, J. (2008). Childhood development after cochlear implantation: Prospective, longitudinal, multicenter study of pediatric outcomes. Preliminary data presented at the Rhode Island Hearing Assessment Program, Beyond the Diagnosis: Creating Positive Environments. Rhode Island Convention Center, March 17, 2008.

Spencer, L. J., Barker, B. A., & Tomblin, J. B. (2003). Exploring the language and literacy outcomes pediatric cochlear implant users. Ear and Hearing, 24, 236-247. http://www.uiowa.edu/clrc/pdfs/literacy.pdf

Tait, M., Lutman, M. E., & Robinson, K. (2000). Pre-implant measures of preverbal communicative behavior as predictors of cochlear implant outcomes in children. Ear and Hearing, 21, 18-24. http://www.ear-hearing.com/pt/re/earhearing/abstract.00003446-200002000-00005.htm;jsessionid=HxND0wyQr46hPg0nT8YhTJSD2p6CktgsTJhWBwVk2NVy4tVStlQ8!-809317659!181195629!8091!-1

Tomblin, B., Barker, B., Spencer, L., Zhang, X., & Gantz, B. (2005, August). The effect of age at cochlear implant initial stimulation on expressive language growth in infants and toddlers. Journal of Speech Language and Hearing Research. http://jslhr.asha.org/cgi/content/abstract/48/4/853


Children’s Hospital Boston. (2003). Children with cochlear implants who sign: Guidelines for transitioning to oral education or a mainstream setting. http://www.childrenshospital.org/clinicalservices/Site2143/Documents/transition.pdf

Chute, P., & Nevins, M. E. (2006). School professionals working with children with cochlear implants. San Diego, CA: Plural Publishing (http://www.pluralpublishing.com/)

Easterbrooks, S., & Baker, S. (2002). Language learning in children who are deaf and hard of hearing: Multiple pathways. Boston: Allyn and Bacon. http://www.ablongman.com/catalog/academic/product/0,1144,0205331009,00.html

Edwards, L. (2007, May). Children with cochlear implants and complex needs: A review of outcome research and psychological practice. Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education Advance Access. http://jdsde.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/full/12/3/258

French, M. M. (1999). Starting with assessment: A developmental approach to deaf children's literacy. Washington, DC: Pre-College National Missions Programs, Gallaudet University. http://www.ablongman.com/catalog/academic/product/0,1144,0205386024,00.html

Geers, A., & Nicholas, J. (2007, August). Will they catch up? The role of age at cochlear implantation in the spoken language development of children with severe to profound hearing loss. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 50, 1048-1062. http://jslhr.asha.org/cgi/content/abstract/50/4/1048

Mahshie, J., Moseley, M. J., Scott, S., & Lee, J. (2006). Enhancing communication skills: Deaf and hard of hearing children in the mainstream. Clifton Park, NY: Thomson-Delmar Learning. http://www.delmarlearning.com/browse_product_detail.aspx?catid=10834&isbn=0769300995

Marschark, M., & Spencer, P. (Eds.). (in press). Oxford handbook of deaf studies, language, and education. Vol. 2. New York: Oxford University Press.

Marschark, M., & Spencer, P. (Eds.) (2003). Oxford handbook of deaf studies, language, and education. New York: Oxford University Press.

Nicholas, J. G., & Geers, A. E. (2008). Expected test scores for preschoolers with a cochlear implant who use spoken languageAmerican Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 17, 121-138.

Schick, B., Marschark, M., & Spencer, P. E. (2006). Advances in the sign language development of deaf and hard-of-hearing children. New York: Oxford University Press. http://www.amazon.com/Advances-Language-Development-Children-Perspectives/dp/0195180941

Spencer, L., Gantz, B., & Knutson, J. (2004, September). Outcomes and achievement of students who grew up with access to cochlear implants. The Laryngoscope. http://www.uiowa.edu/~clrc/pdfs/outcomes-ci.pdf

Spencer, P., Erting, C., & Marschark, M. (Eds.). (2000). The deaf child in the family and at school. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.

Spencer, P. E., & Marschark, M. (2006). Advances in the spoken language development of deaf and hard-of-hearing children. New York: Oxford University Press. http://www.amazon.com/Advances-Spoken-Language-Development-Hearing-Perspectives/dp/0195179870


Christiansen, J., & Leigh, I. (2004, May). Children with cochlear implants: Changing parent and deaf community perspectives. Archives of Otolaryngology, 130(5). http://archotol.ama-assn.org/cgi/content/abstract/130/5/673

National Association for the Deaf. (2000, October). Cochlear implants: NAD position statement. http://www.nad.org/issues/technology/assistive-listening/cochlear-implants

Watson, L., Hardie, S., & Wheeler, A. (2008). Parents' views on changing communication after cochlear implantation. The Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education, 13(1), 104-116. http://jdsde.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/full/13/1/104

Reference List Compilations:

Research Highlights, 11th Annual Cochlear Implant Conference Underscores Device's Impact. (2007, May). The Hearing Review. http://archive.hearingreview.com/news/2007-05-18_01.asp

Sommers, R. K., & Lim, S. (2006, July). How well do young children using cochlear implants succeed in the development of language, speech, and academic skills? What are current research findings telling us?

Summary of research articles: Utilization of “total communication” versus “oral communication” programs involving profoundly deaf children with cochlear implants. http://www.hearindiana.org/Resources/Documents/Summary%20of%20CI%20Research%20Articles.pdf

University of Iowa. Language development in cochlear implant users. http://www.uiowa.edu/clrc/cochlear/index.html