[Layout Image: No Content]
Gallaudet Univeristy
Decorative Graphic: No content.
Home > Clerc Center > Information and Resources > Cochlear Implant Education Center > Resources > Suggested Scales of Development and Assessment Tools

Suggested Scales of Development and Assessment Tools

This list includes a selection of the resources that the Cochlear Implant Education Center has found useful when working with students and families in our demonstration schools. This does not represent a complete list of the many resources that may be available. The absence of a resource on this list does not indicate that we do not support it; it may never have come our way. We are always in the process of trying out new things.

Suggested Scales of Development and Assessment Tools

The following scales of development and assessment tools are provided as a reference. They have been categorized by Auditory Perception/Listening Skills, Speech/Intelligibility, Speechreading, Language, Basic Concepts, and Sign Language. A brief description of each scale/tool and information on availability is provided.

Auditory Perception/Listening Skills:

Auditory-Verbal Ages and Stages of Development (Levels I-VIII) in Cochlear Implants for Kids.

Available through: Alexander Graham Bell Association, 3417 Volta Place, NW, Washington, DC 20007 202-337-5220 (V/TTY) Web: Alexander Graham Bell Association

This checklist outlines the development of listening from sound awareness to auditory comprehension including; discrimination, identification, localization, auditory memory and sequencing, listening from a distance, and listening in noise.

St. Gabriel's Curriculum for the development of Audition, Language, Speech and Cognition.

Available through: Alexander Graham Bell Association, 3417 Volta Place, NW, Washington, DC 20007 202-337-5220 (V/TTY) Web: Alexander Graham Bell Association

This program contains a hierarchical order for the development of auditory awareness and auditory memory progressing from closed set to open set.

Cottage Acquisition Scales For Listening, Language, and Speech.

Available through: Alexander Graham Bell Association, 3417 Volta Place, NW, Washington, DC 20007 202-337-5220 (V/TTY) Web: Alexander Graham Bell Association

This developmental checklist is for assessment and planning for diagnostic therapy. The listening section progresses from sound awareness to comprehension of paragraphs including phonetic listening skills.

Early Speech Perception Test (ESP) for Profoundly Hearing-Impaired Children.

Available through Central Institute for Deaf (CID). Contact Dianne Gushleff at dgushleff@cid.edu  or 314-977-0133 or 314-977-0016 (fax)

The ESP test battery is a test of speech perception for profoundly deaf children as young as 3 years of age. The ESP may be used to establish objectives and to measure the effects of a hearing aid or cochlear implant in terms of their impact on the child's speech perception ability. The kit includes a manual, response forms, box of toys, full-color picture cards and audiocassette.

Functional Auditory Performance Indicators (FAPI): An Integrated Approach to Auditory Development.

Functional Auditory Performance Indicators

The FAPI assesses the functional auditory skills of children with hearing loss. It examines seven categories of auditory development: sound awareness, sound is meaningful, auditory feedback, localizing sound source, auditory discrimination, short-term memory, and linguistic auditory processing. A profile of a child's functional auditory skills is generated after administering all items on the profile. The categories are hierarchical; however, it is appropriate for a child to be working on many skills at the same time. By working on multiple skills from different categories, the child will be learning an integrated approach to auditory skill development.

Meaningful Auditory Integration Scale (MAIS)/Infant-Toddler: Meaningful Auditory Integration Scale (IT-MAIS).

Available through Advance Bionics: Meaningful Auditory Integration Scale brochure

These scales were developed for children who have a profound hearing loss and designed to be administered to parents by an audiologist. The parent is asked questions regarding use of amplification/cochlear implant and auditory behaviors regarding environmental and speech sounds.

Test of Auditory Comprehension of Language-Third Edition (TACL-3).

Available through: AGS Publishing, 4201 Woodland Road, Circle Pines, MN 55014-1796 phone 800-328-2560. Order and inquiries: customerservice@agsnet.com

The TACL-3 measures a child's auditory comprehension skills including word classes and relations, grammatical morphemes, and elaborated sentences. The child is presented with a picture and points to the phrase or sentence that matches what he/she hears.

The Screening Instrument for Targeting Educational Risk (S.I.F.T.E.R.) /The Preschool S.I.F.T.E.R.

Available through: The Educational Audiology Association, 13153 N. Dale Mabry, #105, Tampa, Fla. 33624/ 800-460-7322 Web: http://www.edaud.org

The S.I.F.T.E.R. is used by the teacher to rate the child in comparison to other children in the classroom on 15 items. The responses are plotted on a chart which indicates pass, marginal or fail for each of the five areas of academics, attention, communication, classroom participation, and school behavior. If a child fails in a specific area, they should be referred for further evaluation. The Preschool S.I.F.T.E.R. was developed to be used with preschool children and is similar to the S.I.F.T.E.R.

The Listening Inventory for Education: an Efficacy Tool (L.I.F.E.)

Available through: The Educational Audiology Association, 13153 N. Dale Mabry, #105, Tampa, Fla. 33624/ 800-460-7322 Web: http://www.edaud.org

The L.I.F.E. is designed to determine amplification benefit and considers input from both the student and the teacher. The protocol also provides suggestions for intervention accommodations designed for the specific situations that are identified as problems.

The Lexical Neighborhood Test (LNT) and the Multi-syllabic Lexical Neighborhood Test (MLNT)

Available through: AUDIOTEC of St. Louis , 2515 South Big Bend Blvd , St. Louis, MO 63143/ 800-669-9065 or 314-781-8890/ 314-781-4946 (fax)

Web: http://www.auditec.com/cgi/default.asp

Lexical Neighborhood Test (LNT) and the Multi-syllabic Lexical Neighborhood Test (MLNT) were developed by Indiana University in 1995. These are two new open-set tests of word recognition. These tests include words that the child repeats, and have been used to assess recognition of individual words and phonemes in children who are cochlear implant candidates. The LNT and MLNT are based on the lexical characteristics of word frequency and neighborhood density, and include words found in the vocabularies of children age three to five . Results from these tests with pediatric cochlear implant users have shown that their lexicons appear to be organized into similarity neighborhoods, and these neighborhoods are accessed in open-set word recognition tests. Studies have shown that normal hearing three- and four-year old children are able to recognize all the words from these two open-set speech perception tests at very high levels of performance. Therefore, these results have been used as a benchmark for children with hearing loss.

Speech/Intelligibility:

The Arizona Articulation Proficiency Scale-Third Edition

Available through: Pro Ed, Inc. 8700 Shoal Creek Boulevard - Austin , Texas 78757-6897 (800) 897-3202 or (800) 37-7633 (fax) Web: http://www.proedinc.com

The Arizona-3 is a tool designed to identify misarticulations and total articulatory proficiency. The stimulus pictures show children in more current clothing styles and activities. The test materials also include more ethnic diversity. The instrument has been restandardized on a sample of over 5,500 individuals, representative of the U.S. population according to geographic region, ethnicity, and parents' education level. Gender-specific norms are provided for the early childhood years. The kit includes an examiner's manual, picture cards, and 25 test booklets.

The Goldman Fristoe: Test of Articulation 2

Available through: AGS Publishing, 4201 Woodland Road, Circle Pines, MN 55014-1796 phone 800-328-2560 Order and inquiries: customerservice@agsnet.com

This test assesses a child's articulation ability by sampling both spontaneous and imitative speech production. Pictures and verbal cues are used to elicit single word answers that demonstrate common speech sounds. It measures the articulation of speech sounds and identifies and describes the types of articulation errors produced by the child.

The Phonetic-Phonologic Speech Evaluation Record: A Manual.

Available through: Alexander Graham Bell Association, 3417 Volta Place, NW, Washington, DC 20007 202-337-5220 (V/TTY) Web: Alexander Graham Bell Association

This tool is used to assess the segmental and nonsegmental aspects of speech at both the phonetic and phonologic levels. The phonetic level responses are obtained through imitation. Phonologic level responses are obtained from spontaneous language samples.

Identifying Early Phonological Needs in Children with Hearing Impairment

Available through: Alexander Graham Bell Association, 3417 Volta Place, NW, Washington, DC 20007 202-337-5220 (V/TTY) Web: Alexander Graham Bell Association

This is a standardized test used to assess how young children with hearing loss spontaneously use first-level phonological patterns. It numerically rates whether the child's patterns are missing, emerging, or mastered.

St. Gabriel's Curriculum for the Development of Audition, Language, Speech and Cognition.

Available through : Alexander Graham Bell Association, 3417 Volta Place, NW, Washington, DC 20007 202-337-5220 (V/TTY) Web: Alexander Graham Bell Association

This curriculum outlines the development of early speech, the development of early auditory feedback skills, and an order for the acquisition of vowels, diphthongs, and consonants. It also provides a developmental checklist of phonological processes.

Cottage Acquisition Scales For Listening, Language, and Speech.

Available through :Alexander Graham Bell Association, 3417 Volta Place, NW, Washington, DC 20007 202-337-5220 (V/TTY) Web: Alexander Graham Bell Association

This curriculum provides a developmental checklist for assessment and diagnostic planning for therapy. The speech section tracks objectives from Phonetic-Phonologic Speech Evaluation Record and also links these objectives to phonetic listening development.

Spoken Communication for Students Who are Deaf or Hard of Hearing: A Multidisciplinary Approach

Available through: Butte Publications, Inc., P.O. Box 1328, Hillsboro , OR 97123-1328, 866-312-8883 (V/TTY), 866-412-8883 (FAX), 503-693-9526 (Direct) E-mail: service@buttepublications.com Web: http://www.buttepublications.com

This curriculum includes a Student Speech Record (SSR) which is used to evaluate the following: non-verbal communication (attention, turn taking, eye contact, and breath support) and suprasegmentals, vowels and diphthongs, and consonants at the phonetic, phonologic, and pragmatic levels. The SSR also includes an oral peripheral examination form.

CID Speech Skills Worksheets

Available through: CID - Central Institute for the Deaf. Contact Dianne Gushleff at dgushleff@cid.edu or 314-977-0133 or 314-977-0016 (fax)

CID Speech Skills Worksheets are a system for tracking speech progress in children who are deaf and hard of hearing. This is a natural companion to the CID TAGS system for tracking language skills.

 

Paden-Brown Phonological Kit

Available through Med-El. Contact Linda C. Johnson at ljohnson@medelus.com (919) 314-1272 or (888) 633-3524

This tool is designed to assess spontaneous use of first level phonological patterns in children with hearing loss. It utilizes a list of 25 words that are typically within the speaking vocabulary of young children with hearing loss. The word list provides at least five opportunities for the child to demonstrate how well he/she spontaneously targets each basic consonant feature, such as manner, place, and voicing, as well as each of the primary vowel areas, diphthongs, and basic word patterns. Numerical scoring o f the test reveals whether the child's patterns are missing, emerging, or mastered. Results can be used for developing auditory and speech goals for the child. The test kit includes an instructional manual, 10 score sheets, and 25 picture cards.

Language:

The Bzoch-League Receptive-Expressive-Language Test (REEL-2), 2 nd . Ed.

Available through: Pro Ed, Inc. 8700 Shoal Creek Boulevard - Austin , Texas 78757-6897 (800) 897-3202 or (800) 377633 (fax) Web: http://www.proedinc.com

The REEL-2 is a scale designed for infants and toddlers up to 3 years of age. It measures and analyzes emergent language for intervention planning. Results are obtained from a parent interview and are given in terms of an Expressive Language Age, A Receptive Language Age, and a Combined Language Age.

The Reynell Development Language Scales III (RDLS III), 3rd ed.

Available through: Super Duper Publications, P.O. Box 24997 Greenville , SC 29616-2497 (800) 277-8737 or (800) 978-7379 (fax) Web: http://www.superduperinc.com

The RDLS III assesses receptive and expressive language using real objects rather than pictures for the child to interact with. It is designed for children from 15 months to 7 years of age. The comprehension scale comprises sections such as agents and actions, attributes, locative relations, vocabulary and complex grammar, and inferencing, etc. The expressive scale comprises sections such as verb phrases, auxiliaries, clausal elements, inflections, etc.

The Preschool Language Scale-4 (PLS-4)

Available through: Harcourt Assessment, Inc. 19500 Bulverde Road, San Antonio, Texas 78259 (800) 211-8378 Web: Harcourt Assessment

The PLS-4 is a standardized test of auditory comprehension and expressive communication for infants and toddlers. The auditory comprehension subscale assesses basic vocabulary, concepts and grammatical markers in preschool and higher-level abilities such as complex sentences, making comparisons and inferences, etc. in older children. The expressive communication subscale asks preschoolers to name objects, use concepts that describe objects, express quantity, use grammatical markers, etc. For older children it includes word segmentation, completing analogies, telling a short story in sequence, etc. This test also includes an articulation screener and a language sample checklist.

Preschool-Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals (CELF-P)

Available through: Harcourt Assessment, Inc. 19500 Bulverde Road, San Antonio, Texas 78259 (800) 211-8378 Web: Harcourt Assessment: CELF-P

The CELF-P evaluates expressive and receptive language ability. It focuses on word meanings, word and sentence structure, and recall of spoken language. This tool was standardized for children ages 3 years, 0 months to 6 years, 11 months and uses pictures as stimulus for all three areas of language development. The linguistic concepts subtest evaluates the child's knowledge of modifiers and his/her ability to interpret one-level oral directions. The sentence structure subtest evaluates comprehension of early acquired sentence formation rules and the child's ability to comprehend and respond to spoken sentences. The recalling sentences in context subtest evaluates recall and repetition of spoken sentences. Formulating labels assesses the child's ability to name pictures. The word structure subtest assesses the child's knowledge and use of early acquired morphological rules and forms.

The Rossetti Infant-Toddler Language Scale: A Measure of Communication and Interaction

Available through: Linguisystems 3100 4 th Avenue, East Moline, IL 61244 (800) PRO-IDEA Web: http://www.linguisystems.com

This scale assesses preverbal and verbal areas of communication and interaction including: Interaction-Attachment, Pragmatics, Gesture, Play, Language Comprehension and Language Expression. The examiner can directly observe or elicit a behavior from the child or use the caregiver's report to equally credit the child performance. Results reflect the child's mastery of skills in each of the areas assessed at 3 month intervals. A parent questionnaire with guidelines for parent interview is also included.

SKI-HI Language Development Scale

Available through: Hope Publishing, Inc 1856 North 1200 East, North Logan, UT 84341; phone/fax: (435) 245-2888; e-mail : hope@hopepubl.com; Web Site: http://www.hopepubl.com

This scale is developmentally ordered and contains a list of communication and language skills in varying intervals for different ages. Each age interval is represented by enough observable receptive and expressive language skills to obtain a good profile of a child's language ability.

Test of Semantic Skills-Primary (TOSS-P) (update of former test, Assessing Semantic Skills Through Everyday Themes (ASSET)

Available through: Linguisystems 3100 4 th Avenue , East Moline , IL 61244

(800) PRO-IDEA

Web: http://www.linguisystems.com

The TOSS-P is a receptive and expressive diagnostic test designed to assess a child's semantic skills. Comprised of twenty realistic line-illustrations depicting natural, real-life scenes, the test is built around six common themes: Learning and Playing, Shopping, Around the House, Working at School, Eating and Health and Fitness. Test items emphasis vocabulary that is meaningful and relevant to the experiences of young children. The TOSS-P surveys ten semantic and vocabulary tasks through five receptive subtests and five expressive subtests.

St. Gabriel's Curriculum for the development of Audition, Language, Speech and Cognition.

Available through :Alexander Graham Bell Association, 3417 Volta Place, NW, Washington, DC 20007 202-337-5220 (V/TTY) Web: Alexander Graham Bell Association

This curriculum provides a developmental sequence for the structure of English from birth to 6 years of age. It outlines the receptive and expressive skills in three month intervals from birth to 12 months and then in six monthly intervals to 6 years. Grammatical structures are included.

Cottage Acquisition Scales For Listening, Language, and Speech.

Available through :Alexander Graham Bell Association, 3417 Volta Place, NW, Washington, DC 20007 202-337-5220 (V/TTY) Web: Alexander Graham Bell Association

This curriculum includes a developmental checklist for assessment and planning for diagnostic therapy. The language section includes steps from pre-verbal through to complex sentences including pragmatic development.

Oral and Written Language Scales (OWLS)

Available through: Super Duper Publications, P.O. Box 24997 Greenville, SC 29616-2497 (800) 277-8737 or (800) 978-7379 (fax) Web: http://www.superduperinc.com

The OWLS assesses higher order thinking, semantics, syntax, vocabulary, and pragmatics. It includes a Listening Comprehension Scale (picture pointing), an Oral Expression Scale (answering questions, and sentence completion) and a Written Expression Scale (use of conventions, syntactical forms, and ability to communicate meaningfully).

Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT)

Available through: American Guidance Service, 4201 Woodland Road, Circle Pines, MN 55014-1796 (800) 328-2560 Ext, 7717 www.agsnet.com

The PPVT measures a child's understanding of individual words (receptive vocabulary). It is designed for children 2 years 6 months to 18 years of age. Raw test scores are converted into standard cores, percentile ranks and age equivalents.

Expressive One-Word Picture Vocabulary Test (EOWPVT)

Available through: Super Duper Publications, P.O. Box 24997 Greenville, SC 29616-2497 (800) 277-8737 or (800) 978-7379 (fax) Web: http://www.superduperinc.com

The EOWPVT assesses a child's English speaking vocabulary by asking the child to name objects, actions and concepts pictured in illustrations. The test ends on 6 consecutive incorrect responses.

Receptive One-Word Picture Vocabulary Test (ROWPVT)

Available through: Super Duper Publications, P.O. Box 24997 Greenville, SC 29616-2497 (800) 277-8737 or (800) 978-7379 (fax) Web: http://www.superduperinc.com

The ROWPVT assesses a student's knowledge of vocabulary by asking the child to point to the object being named. The test ends when the child cannot correctly identify the pictured meaning of the word in 6 out of 8 consecutive items.

Teacher Assessment of Grammatical Structures (TAGS)

Available through: Central Institute for Deaf (CID). Contact Dianne Gushleff at dgushleff@cid.edu or 314-977-0133 or 314-977-0016 (fax)

The TAGS consists of rating forms to be completed by the therapist regarding the child's understanding of grammatical structures in sentences of at least four words that contain a subject and a verb. The grammatical categories are noun modifiers, pronouns, prepositions, adverbs, verbs, and questions.

Preschool Developmental Checklists

Available through: CID - Central Institute for the Deaf. Contact Dianne Gushleff at dgushleff@cid.edu or 314-977-0133 or 314-977-0016 (fax)

The CID Preschool Developmental Checklists are an essential way to track normal developmental progress in a child who is deaf or hard of hearing.

Test of Early Reading Ability-3 rd ed (TERA-3)

Available through: Pro Ed, Inc. 8700 Shoal Creek Boulevard - Austin, Texas 78757-6897 (800) 897-3202 or (800) 37-7633 (fax) Web: http://www.proedinc.com

The TERA-3 measures reading ability of young children ages 3-6 through 8-6. Rather than assessing a child's reading readiness it assesses their mastery of early developing reading skills. The three subtests include: Alphabet (knowledge of the alphabet and its uses), Conventions (knowledge of the conventions of print), and Meaning (measuring the construction of meaning from print). An overall Quotient is computed using all three subtest scores.

The Toolkit: Appendices for Starting with Assessment A Developmental Approach to Deaf Children's Literacy

Available through: Laurent Clerc National Deaf Education Center, Product Inquiries, KDES PAS-6, 800 Florida Ave., N.E., Washington, D.C. 20002-3695, (800) 526-9105 (TTY/V), 202-651-5340 (TTY/V), or 202-651-5708 (FAX), Web: http://clerccenter@gallaudet.edu; Email: products.clerccenter@gallaudet.edu

The Toolkit includes the appendices to Starting With Assessment: A Developmental Approach to Deaf Children's Literacy, by Martha M. French. Starting With Assessment describes a model for assessing deaf children's literacy development in the classroom. Appendix B includes the Kendall Conversational Proficiency Levels, or "P-Levels". The P-Levels scale was developed for teachers to assess the communicative competency of their deaf students.

Basic Concepts:

Boehm Test of Basic Concepts-Revised (BTBC-R)

Available through: Harcourt Assessment, Inc. 19500 Bulverde Road, San Antonio, Texas 78259 (800) 211-8378 Web: Harcourt Assessment: Boehm test

The BTBC-R is administered to children in Kindergarten, 1st, and 2nd grade (and older children who are deaf or hard of hearing) and tests basic concepts of comparison, direction, position, quantity, and time.

Bracken Basic Concept Scale-Revised (BBCS-R)

Available through: Harcourt Assessment, Inc. 19500 Bulverde Road, San Antonio, Texas 78259 (800) 211-8378 Web: http://marketplace.psychcorp.com

The BBCS-R measures basic concept acquisition and receptive language skills of children from 2 years, 6 months to 8 years of age. It includes eleven conceptual categories-colors, letters, numbers, counting, sizes, comparisons, shapes, direction/position, self/social awareness, texture/materials, quantity, and time/sequence.

Sign Language:

Checklist of Emerging ASL Skills

Available in: Easterbrooks, S & Baker, S. Language Learning In Children Who Are Deaf And Hard Of Hearing: Multiple Pathways. (2002) Allyn and Bacon, Boston, Mass.

This checklist provides a series of indicators to judge whether a deaf child has components of ASL in his or her communication system. The evaluator should not judge a child's skills based on English ability. The focus should be on ASL.

The checklist should be filled out by at least three different evaluators who are familiar with the child and who are proficient in ASL.

ASL Development Observation Record

Available through: ASL Resource Teacher, Early Childhood Education Program, California School for the Deaf, Freemont (CSDF), 39350 Gallaudet Drive, Fremont, CA 94538 (510) 794-2536

This tool was developed by the Early Childhood Education program at the CSDF to document the ASL language development of deaf children from the time they entered the program to Kindergarten. The goal of the observation record is to identify the language strengths and needs of each child and to document the progress made over the time spent in the Early Childhood Education program. This record also serves as a guide for teachers in assessing their role as language models and how they use language with the children.

The American Sign Language Proficiency Assessment (ASL-PA)

Available by contacting: Dr. Sam Supalla, Department of Special Education, Rehabilitation, and School Psychology, College of Education, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (520) 621-9466 (TTY) E-mail: ssupalla@u.arizona.edu

The ASL-PA globally assesses the expressive ASL skills of children ages 6-12 years of age. Items/target features are based on ASL acquisition studies. Language samples are elicited from varied discourse contexts. There are no sample norms presently available.

Test of American Sign Language (TASL)

Available by contacting: Dr. Philip Prinz, Department of Special Education and Communicative Disorders, San Francisco State University (415) 338-7655 E-mail: pm@sfsu.edu

The TASL consists of two production measures (Classifier Production Test, and Sign Narrative) and four comprehension measures (Story Comprehension, Classifier Comprehension Test, Time Marker Test, and Map Marker Test). It is designed to be used with deaf students ages 8-15 years.

The MacArthur Communicative Development Inventory for American Sign Language,
http://www.signlang-assessment.info/eng/ASL-CDI-eng/asl-cdi-eng.html