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A Good Start: Suggestions for Visual Conversations with Deaf and Hard of Hearing Babies and Toddlers

By Patricia Elizabeth Spencer, Ph.D.

Appendix

What's in the Appendix:

References

Suggestions for Additional Reading

References

Adamson, L. & Chance, S. (1998). Coordinating attention to people, objects, and language. In A. Wetherby, S. Warren, & J. Reichle (Eds.), Transitions in prelinguistic communication (pp. 15-37). Baltimore: P. Brookes.

Bremner, G. (1988). Infancy. Oxford, UK: B. Blackwell.

Clifton, R. (1992). The development of spatial hearing in human infants. In, L. Werner & E. Rubel (Eds.), Developmental psychoacoustics (pp. 135-157). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Erting, C., Prezioso, C., & Hynes, M. (1994). The interactional context of deaf mother-infant communication. In V. Volterra & C. Erting (Eds.), From gesture to language in hearing and deaf children (pp. 97-106). Washington, DC: Gallaudet University Press.

Erting, C., Thumann-Prezioso, C., & Benedict, B. (2000). Bilingualism in a Deaf family: Fingerspelling in early childhood. In, P. Spencer, C. Erting, & M. Marschark (Eds.), The deaf child in the family and at school (p. 41-54). Mahwah, NJ: L. Erlbaum.

Harris, M., Clibbens, J., Chasin, J., & Tibbitts, R. (1989). The social context of early sign language development. First Language, 9, 81-97.

Harris, M. & Mohay, H. (1997). Learning to look in the right place: A comparison of attentional behavior in deaf children with deaf and hearing mothers. Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education, 2(2), 95-103.

Kantor, R. (1982). Communicative interaction: Mother modification and child acquisition of American Sign Language. Sign Language Studies, 36, 233-282.

Koester, L. (1992). Intuitive parenting as a model for understanding parent-infant interactions when one partner is deaf. American Annals of the Deaf, 137(4), 362-369.

Koester, L. & Meadow-Orlans, K. (1999). Responses to interactive stress: Infants who are deaf or hearing. American Annals of the Deaf, 144(5), 395-403.

Koester, L., Papousek, H., & Smith-Gray, S. (2000). Intuitive parenting, communication, and interaction with deaf infants. In, P. Spencer, C. Erting, & M. Marschark (Eds.), The deaf child in the family and at school (pp. 55-72). Mahwah, NJ: L. Erlbaum.

Kyle, J., Ackerman, J., & Woll. (1987). Early mother-infant interactions: Language and pre-language in deaf families. In, P. Griffiths, A. Mills, & J. Local (Eds.), Proceedings of the Child Language Seminar, University of York, UK.

Lederberg, A. & Mobley, C. (1990). The effect of hearing impairment on the quality of attachment and mother-toddler interaction. Child Development, 61, 1596-1604.

Maestas Y Moores, J. (1980). Early linguistic environment: Interactions of deaf parents with their infants. Sign Language Studies, 26, 1-13.

Mohay, H. (2000). Language in sight: Mothers' strategies for making language visually accessible to deaf children. In, P. Spencer, C. Erting, & M. Marschark (Eds.), The deaf child in the family and at school: Essays in honor of Kathryn P. Meadow-Orlans (pp. 151-166). Mahwah, NJ: L. Erlbaum.

Papousek, H., & Papousek, M. (1987). Intuitive parenting: A dialectic counterpart to the infant's precocity in integrative capacities. In, J. Osofsky (Ed.), Handbook of infant development (2nd ed., pp. 669-720). New York: Wiley.

Reilly, J. & Bellugi, U. (1996). Competition on the face: Affect and language in ASL motherese. Journal of Child Language, 23(1), 219-239.

Schaffer, H. (1984). Face-to-face interactions. The child's entry into a social world (pp. 44-78). London: Academic Press.

Slade, A. (1987). Quality of attachment and early symbolic play. Developmental Psychology, 23, 78-85.

Spencer, P. (July, 1998). Communication, attention, and symbolic development: Mothers and infants as an interactive system. International Conference for the Study of Behavioral Development. Berne, Switzerland.

Spencer, P. (2000). Looking without listening: Is audition a prerequisite for normal development of visual attention during infancy? Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education, 5, 291-302.

Spencer, P., Bodner-Johnson, B., & Gutfreund, M. (1992). Interacting with infants with a hearing loss: What can we learn from mothers who are deaf? Journal of Early Intervention, 16, 64-78.

Spencer, P. & Lederberg, A. (1997). Different modes, different models: Communication and language of young deaf children and their mothers. In, L. Adamson & M. Romski (Eds.), Research on communication and language disorders: Contributions to theories of language development (pp. 203-230). Baltimore: P. Brookes.

Spencer, P., Lederberg, A., & Waxman, R. (April, 1996). Language mode and communication models. International Conference on Infant Studies. Providence, RI.

Thompson, R. (1998). Early sociopersonal development. In, W. Damon (Series Ed.), & N. Eisenberg (Vol. Ed), Handbook of child psychology: Vol. 3. Social, emotional, and personality development (5th ed., pp. 25-104). New York: Wiley.

Tomasello, M. (1988). The role of joint attentional processes in early language development. Language Sciences, 1, 69-88.

Vondra, J. & Barnett, D. (1999). Atypical attachment in infancy and early childhood among children at developmental risk. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, Serial No. 258, Vol. 64, No. 3.

Waxman, R., & Spencer, P. (1997). What mothers do to support infant visual attention: Sensitivities to age and hearing status. Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education, 2(2), 104-114.

Wilson, S. & Spencer, P. (April, 1997). Maternal topic responsiveness and child language: A cross-cultural, cross-modality replication. Biennial Conference of Society for Research in Child Development. Washington, DC.

Yoshinaga-Itano, C., Sedey, A., Coulter, D., & Mehl, A. (1998). Language of early- and later-identified children with hearing loss. Pediatrics, 102, 1161-1171.

Suggestions for Additional Reading

Several chapters in a recent book give more information about the topics we have discussed:

Spencer, P., Erting, C., & Marschark, M. (Eds.) (2000). The deaf child in the family and at school: Essays in honor of Kathryn P. Meadow-Orlans. Hillsdale, NJ: L. Erlbaum Associates.

Chapters that may be especially interesting include:

  • Erting, C., Thumann-Prezioso, C., & Benedict, B. (Discusses the way deaf parents use fingerspelling to introduce ideas related to literacy skills.)
  • Mohay, H. (Discusses a curriculum developed in Australia that teaches hearing parents to use the attention and language strategies used by deaf parents.)
  • Spencer, P. Every opportunity: A case study of hearing parents and their deaf child. (Tells the story of a family and the challenges it faces in assuring its child develops language well.)
  • Swisher, M.V. Learning to converse: How deaf mothers support the development of attention and conversational skills in their young deaf children. (Discusses differences in the way deaf mothers use language and attention signals depending upon their own and their child's characteristics.)

For more research-based information about the early language development of deaf and hard of hearing children:

Spencer, P. & Lederberg, A. (1997). Different modes, different models: Communication and language of young deaf children and their mothers. In, L. Adamson & M. Romski (Eds.), Research on communication and language disorders: Contributions to theories of language development (pp. 203-230). Baltimore: P. Brookes Publishers.