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Bilingual/Bicultural Resources

This includes resources for reading about bilingual/bicultural issues. It is organized into the following topics: American Sign Language in Education of Deaf Children and Bilingual/Bicultural Education. If you have suggestions for additions to this resource list, please e-mail Clearinghouse.Infotogo@gallaudet.edu.

American Sign Language in Education of Deaf Children:

Bornstein, H., Ed. (1990). Manual communication: Implications for education. Washington, DC: Gallaudet University Press.

Each chapter looks at segments related to manual codes in English such as codes in English and ASL, communication in classrooms for deaf students, and ASL and its implications for education.

Hoffmeister, R. (2000). A piece of the puzzle: The relationship between ASL and English literacy in deaf children. In C. Chamberlain, R. Mayberry, & J. Morford (Eds.), Language Acquisition by Eye. Mahweh, NJ: Erlbaum Publishing.

This chapter finds supports that a bilingual model for the education of deaf children is effective with the use of the visual language American Sign Language. The chapter addresses the role of language knowledge in deaf children's acquisition of literacy skills.

Holloway, L. (2000, June 22). Among the deaf, ubiquitous sign language faces a challenge. New York Times, pp. A1.

This article focuses on broader teaching skills and the use of cued speech and cochlear implants to enhance the literacy and written skills of the deaf student. Good writing skills better prepare students for future career options, especially in the high technology fields.

Magnuson, M. (2000). Infants with congenital deafness: On the importance of early sign language. American Annals of the Deaf, 1(145), 6-14.

This article examines two case studies of two preschool boys with profound, bilateral hearing impairments and how the environment and background impacted early language development.

Metzger, M. (Ed.). (2000). Bilingualism and identity in deaf communities. Washington, DC: Gallaudet University Press.

This book is the sixth volume from a sociolinguistic series. The author observes the cultural and language perception by and for deaf people from around the world.

Ramsey, C.L. (1997). Deaf children in public schools: Placement, context, and consequences. Washington, DC: Gallaudet University Press.

This is an ethnographic study written for a general audience with current literature on deafness/deaf studies and with important implications for the education of deaf people.

Schick, B., & Gale, E. (1995). Preschool deaf and hard of hearing student's interactions during ASL and English. American Annals of the Deaf, 140(4), 363-366.

This study looks at the quality and quantity of interaction by deaf and hard of hearing children during stories in ASL and other language use. The study found that children participated more in story conditions that were either directly told in ASL or involved some use of ASL.

Shantie, C., & Hoffmeister, R.J. (2000). Why schools for deaf children should hire deaf teachers: A preschool issue. Journal of Education 3(182), 37-47.

This article looks at theories why bilingual education for deaf children is the better option. To ensure necessary ASL models in preschool, to achieve any type of success in ASL, the article suggests preschool teachers of Deaf students be native signers.

Stewart, D.A., & Luetke-Stahlman, B. (1998). The signing family: What every parent should know about sign communication. Washington, DC: Gallaudet University Press.

An essential book for parents, the authors look at reasons to teach deaf children language fundamentals as early as possible.

Bilingual/Bicultural Education:

Abrams, M., Weinstock, J., & Erting, L. (1996). Surround them with language. Perspectives in Education & Deafness, 14(3), 12-15.

This is a case study of a preschool class for deaf children co-taught by two teachers, one hearing and one deaf that uses a whole language approach to build student ASL and written English skills.

Andrews, J.F., Ferguson, C., Roberts, S., & Hodges, P. (1997, March). What's up Billy Jo?: Deaf children and bilingual-bicultural instruction in east central Texas. American Annals of the Deaf, 1(142), 16-25.

Standardized test scores of seven deaf children who attended a bilingual-bicultural (bi-bi) school in Texas are examined. This study looks at the feasibility of establishing bi-bi programs in areas where no large deaf community exists.

Easterbrooks, S.R., & Baker, S. (2001). Language learning in children who are deaf and hard of hearing: Multiple pathways. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.

Chapters in this book focus on language issues within the context of history, instruction, technology, culture, and laws related to the education of deaf students and professionals who work with them.

Drasgow, D. (1998, Spring). American Sign Language as a pathway to linguistic competence. Exceptional Children, 3(64), 329-342.

The author supports the idea that American Sign Language should be the first language of some deaf children and English taught as a second language.

Erting, L., & Pfau, J. (1997). Becoming bilingual: Facilitating English literacy development using ASL in preschool [Sharing Ideas paper]. Washington, DC: Gallaudet University, Laurent Clerc National Deaf Education Center. Available from the Sharing Ideas series Web site: http://clerccenter.gallaudet.edu/Products/Sharing-Ideas/index.html.

The above focuses on the literacy of deaf children with the perspective of bilingualism and the framework of ASL as the primary language in teaching English as a second language.

Graney, S. (1998). Where does speech fit in? Spoken English in a Bilingual Context [Sharing Ideas paper]. Washington, DC: Gallaudet University, Laurent Clerc National Deaf Education Center. Available from the Sharing Ideas series Web site: http://clerccenter.gallaudet.edu/Products/Sharing-Ideas/index.html.

This document looks at factors that influence deaf and hard of hearing children's spoken English development.

Hadadian, A., Studnicky, J., & Merbler, J. (1997). Deaf education public school teacher: What are they saying about the Bi-Bi philosophy? CAEDHH Journal/La Revue ACESM, 23(2-3), 78-94.

In a statewide survey, 64 public school teachers of deaf students found that teachers had inadequate knowledge of American Sign Language, and looked at the role the deaf community plays in the education of deaf children and its importance. The article recommends pre-service/in-service teacher training in ASL and in current issues, such as bilingual/bicultural perspectives.

LaSasso, C.L., & Metzer, M. (1998). An alternate route for preparing deaf children for bi-bi programs: the home language in L1 and cued speech for conveying traditionally spoken languages. Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education, 3, 265-289.

LaSasso, C.L. & Lollis, J. (2003). Survey of Residential and Day Schools for Deaf Students in the United States That Identify Themselves as Bilingual-Bicultural Programs.  Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education, 8:1, 79-91.

The article focuses on non-signing hearing parents of deaf children who share the goals of bilingual-bicultural (bi-bi) programs for their child and opt for their home language to be their deaf child's first language and to learn about communication options.

Mahshie, S. (1995). Educating deaf children bilingually. Washington, DC.: Laurent Clerc National Deaf Education Center. Available from the Clerc Center Web site: http://clerccenter.gallaudet.edu/products/B442.html.

This book looks at language acquisition theory and practice from models used in Sweden, the United States, and Denmark, providing support to parents, teachers, and deaf consumers for training.

Mason, D., & Ewoldt, C. (1996). Whole language and deaf bilingual-bicultural education-Naturally! American Annals of the Deaf, 141(4), 293-98.

This article discusses how the tenets of whole language and deaf bilingual-bicultural education complement each other.

Mayer, C., & Akamatsu, C.T. (2000, December). Deaf children creating written texts: Contributions of American Sign Language and signed forms of English. American Annals of the Deaf, 145(5), 394-403.

A study involving three deaf children, this case investigates the way ASL and English-based sign allows for comprehension of text content; it contains references.

Moores, D.F. (1999, March). Total communication and bi-bi. American Annals of the Deaf, 144(1), 3.

In this article, the author discusses bilingual-bicultural programs and total communication programs.

Nover, S., & Andrews, J.F. (1998). Critical pedagogy in deaf education: Bilingual methology and staff development. Year 1 (1997-1998). Sante Fe: New Mexico School for the Deaf.

Nover, S., & Andrews, J.F. (1998). Critical pedagogy in deaf education: Bilingual methology and staff development. Year 2 (1998-1999). Sante Fe: New Mexico School for the Deaf.

Nover, S., & Andrews, J.F. (1998). Critical pedagogy in deaf education: Bilingual methology and staff development. Year 3 (1999-2000). Sante Fe: New Mexico School for the Deaf.

Nover, S., & Andrews, J.F. (1998). Critical pedagogy in deaf education: Bilingual methology and staff development. Year 4 (2000-2001). Sante Fe: New Mexico School for the Deaf.

These reports cover years one through four of a longitudinal study that is looking at applying an ASL/English bilingual approach to development of language and literacy skills in deaf learners. Specifically, the reports describe how teachers and mentors in nine residential schools participated in in-service training on the use of bilingual and English as a Second Language (ESL) methodologies and practices with deaf learners. Implications of the project include increased use of bilingual and ESL methodologies in in-service teacher training and a closer attention to background variables of deaf students as they affect language learning.

Parasnis, I. (1996). Cultural and language diversity and the deaf experience. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Chapters in this text look at issues related to deafness, language, and experience.

Pittman, P., & Huefner, D.S. (2001, Winter). Will the courts go bi-bi? IDEA 1997, the courts and deaf education. Exceptional Children, 2(67), 187-198.

This article reviews past litigation related to the education of deaf and hard of hearing children and examines the 1997 IDEA and how it affects communication issues with deaf students.

Prinz, P.M., & Strong, M. (1998). ASL proficiency and English literacy within a bilingual deaf education model of instruction. Topics in Language Disorders, 18(4), 47-60.

The article looks at the theoretical models and arguments related to the relationship between natural sign language proficiency and English literacy through the findings of a study with 155 deaf students.

Saunders, J. (1997). Educating deaf and hard of hearing children in a bilingual/bicultural environment. CAEDHH Journal/La Revue ACESM, 23(1), 61-68.

This article observes two models of bilingual/bicultural approaches used to teach deaf kids. Transitional models use the native language to teach a second language, whereas maintenance models teach and use both languages throughout the school day.

Schwartz, S. (1996). Choices in deafness: A parents guide to communication options. Bethesda, MD: Woodbine House.

This is a guide to use in the school and home regarding communication options for hearing parents with a deaf child.

Singleton, J., Supulla, S. Bitchfield, S., & Schley, S. (1998). From sign to word: Considering modality constraints in ASL/English bilingual education. Topics in Language Disorders, 18(4),16-29.

This text examines the traditional notion of American Sign language/English bilingualism. This text opposes the ASL/English as spoken language bilingual model with the constraints of modality that faces the deaf child.

Strong, M. (1995, April). A Review of bilingual/bicultural programs for deaf children in North America. American Annals of the Deaf, 140(2), 84-94.

This article examines characteristic of nine bilingual/bicultural programs throughout the United States and Canada.

Stuckless, E.R., & Birch, J.W. (1997). The influence of early manual communication on the linguistic development of deaf children. American Annals of the Deaf, 3(142), 71-79.

This article determines that early manual communication has no apparent influence on intelligibility level of the deaf students and speech, and facilitates the development of speech training in deaf students.

Weiner, M.T. (1998). Raising bilingual and bicultural children: Deaf parents perception. Doctoral dissertation, University of Maryland, 1997). PsycINFO, ISSN 0419-4217.

This is a qualitative study based on interviews conducted with twelve deaf parents with at least one hearing child in the age range of 10-14; it explored parental perceptions on raising hearing children.

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