(Items are alphabetized by author's last name.)

Albertorio, J.R., Holden-Pitt, L., & Rawlings, B. (1999). Preliminary results of the annual survey of deaf and hard of hearing children and youth in Puerto Rico: The first wave. American Annals of the Deaf, 144, (5), 386-394.

Provides a descriptive profile of demographic, educational, and communication data collected from 336 deaf and hard of hearing children during the 1997-1998 school year.

Carroll, C. (1998, November/December). Kimberly Garcia: Success in the mainstream. World Around You, 20, (2), 4. (Washington, D.C.: Clerc National Deaf Education Center, Gallaudet University).

Profile and short interview with Kimberly Garcia, a senior at West High School in Denver, CO. She was elected president of the Junior Colorado Association of the Deaf and was selected as a regional winner of the Hispanic Heritage Youth Leadership Award for Community Service. She provides volunteer services to young deaf students in her community and teaches sign language classes to hearing high school students. Goal is to become a lawyer and work in the criminal justice system.

Cohen, O. P. (1990). Current and future needs of minority hearing-impaired children and youth. In G. B. Anderson & D. Watson (Eds.), Habilitation and rehabilitation of hearing-impaired adolescents in the mainstream. (pp. 261-273). Little Rock, AR: Rehabilitation Research and Training Center for Persons who are Deaf or Hard of Hearing, University of Arkansas.

Examines the social realities and dynamics of black and Hispanic families with deaf children. Discusses issues within and outside of schools for deaf students that impact on the educational development of black and Hispanic/Latino deaf children. Ways in which ethnic and cultural diversity can be addressed through school policies and practices are also discussed.

Delgado, G. L. (Ed.). (1984). The Hispanic deaf: Issues and challenges for bilingual special education. Washington, DC: Gallaudet College Press.

Book includes 14 chapters contributed by several leading experts and educators concerned with enhancing educational services and programs for deaf students from Hispanic/Latino communities. The chapters are organized around seven major sections that include the following: the Hispanic deaf population, language dynamics, language choices, assessment approaches, educational programming, and teacher preparation.

Fischgrund, J. E., Cohen, O. P. & Clarkson, R. L. (1987). Hearing-impaired children in black and hispanic families. In O. P. Cohen & G. Long (Eds.), The Volta Review, 86, (5), 59-67.

Provides an overview of the changing demographics of the American population, in general, and among families and students being served by educational programs for the deaf. Stresses that attention must be given to ensuring that educators and other professional personnel have access to training and staff development to acquire skills and sensitivity to work with families of deaf students from diverse racial and ethnic backgrounds. Addresses some of the social realities faced by black and Hispanic/Latino families, challenges these families face parenting their deaf children, and the implications of receiving appropriate educational services from schools for deaf students.

Hassel, J. (1993, February). Angel Ramos: A leading advocate for the rights of deaf people talks about his career and adventures. Deaf Life, 5, (9), 10-16.

Profile of Angel Ramos, one of the co-founders of the National Hispanic Council of the Deaf. He was born into a family that immigrated to New York City from Puerto Rico. Article includes a chronicle of some of his advocacy efforts on behalf of deaf people.

Hernadez, M. (1999). The role of therapeutic groups in working with Latino deaf adolescent immigrants. In I. Leigh (Ed.), Psychotherapy with deaf clients from diverse groups (pp. 227-249). Washington, D.C.: Gallaudet University Press.

Describes the experiences of deaf Latino adolescents who immigrated to the U.S. with their families. Highlights some of the migration-related issues that impact on their ability to adjust to life in a new country. Feelings of uprootedness, confusion, loss and anger at adult caretakers are some of the common reactions to the stress associated with adolescence and relocation. A small group approach is suggested as a culturally appropriate intervention. Issues that can be addressed through this approach include those related to family, peers, language, and school within the larger context of the Latino, new host country, and deaf and hearing worlds.

Lopez, J. (1993). Transforming leadership for the 21st century. In M. Garretson (Ed.), Deafness 1993-2013. A Deaf American Monograph. Vol. 43, pp. 83-88. (Silver Spring, MD: National Association of the Deaf).

Summary of presentation to the National Hispanic Council of the Deaf and Hard of Hearing Conference held in San Antonio, TX, November, 1992. Focuses on ways the Hispanic/Latino deaf community can empower itself to become active players in the American Deaf community and in mainstream hearing society.

Lopez, J. (1989). Hispanic Americans: Roots of oppression and seeds of change. In F. Turk (Ed.)., Kaleidoscope of Deaf America (pp. 12-14). Silver Spring, MD: National Association of the Deaf.

Author shares his childhood experiences growing up as a Mexican-American deaf person. Growing up in a single-parent household, he describes how his extended family played important roles in his life, particularly his grandfather who was instrumental in his enrolling in the Arizona School for the Deaf.

Luetke-Stahlman, B. & Weiner, F. F. (1982). Assessing language and/or system preferences of Spanish-deaf preschoolers. American Annals of the Deaf, 789-796.

Three Spanish deaf children were taught receptive vocabulary in oral English, English sign mix, oral Spanish, Spanish sign mix, and sign alone. Conclusions drawn were that neither heritage nor etiological classification should dictate the language used to educate Spanish deaf children. Rather, a combination of factors should be considered. These include: the language and/or system of the caretaker, the amount of exposure to sign language and/or systems, the degree of usable aided hearing ability, and the language and/or system demonstrated to be the most effective for learning.

Moore, M. & Levitan, L. (Eds.). (1990, November). Room at the top: Dr. Robert Davila. Deaf Life, 18-25.

Profile of Dr. Robert Davila, appointed by President George Bush to the position of Assistant Secretary of the U.S. Department of Education's Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services (OSERS). He was appointed to the highest federal post ever held by a deaf person.

Page, J. M. (1993, Fall). Ethnic Identity in Deaf Hispanics of New Mexico. Sign Language Studies, 80, 185-221.

Reports on a research study designed to explore whether Deaf Hispanics identify more strongly with their Hispanic heritage or with American Deaf culture. The data were collected through videotaped interviews and a short questionnaire. Although the sample of respondents was relatively small, the participants in the study perceived themselves as identifying with both the Hispanic heritage and the American Deaf culture, with a stronger bond toward Deaf culture.

Rodriquez, O. & Santiviago, M. (1991). Hispanic deaf adolescents: A multicultural minority. In O.P. Cohen & G. Long (Eds.), Selected issues in adolescence and deafness, Volta Review, 93, (5), 89-97.

Examines education, work, and psychological issues concerning Hispanic deaf adolescents. States that three potential sources of marginal status impact on this target group-adolescence, deafness, and minority group membership. Discusses the social and cultural barriers they encounter relative to their marginal status and offers recommendations to assist schools in serving Hispanic deaf adolescents and their families.

Steinberg, A., Davilla, J., Collazo, J., Loew, R., & Fischgrund, J. (1997). A little sign and a lot of love: Attitudes, perceptions, and beliefs of Hispanic families with deaf children. Qualitative Health Research, 7, (2), 202-222.

The authors studied the perceptions, attitudes, and beliefs about deafness and disability in 9 Hispanic families with deaf children. Most parents expressed positive or neutral feelings about deafness. Some parents attributed deafness to divine will and others to hereditary or physical insult. Still some parents reported that their extended families and communities stigmatized the deaf child.

Walker-Vann, C. (1998). Profiling Hispanic deaf students. American Annals of the Deaf, 143, (1), 46-54.

Article states that the lack of qualified professionals and interpreters with trilingual proficiency in Spanish, English, and ASL can result in difficulties obtaining appropriate language assessments of Hispanic/Latino deaf students. A model for constructing demographic "profiles" of Hispanic/Latino deaf students and providing language instruction and support services using trilingual approaches is discussed.

Williams, C. (1991, November/December). Teaching Hispanic deaf students: Lessons from Luis. Perspectives in Education and Deafness, 14, 8-11.

Presented issues educational programs face in their efforts to provide appropriate services to increasing enrollments of Hispanic/Latino deaf students. Instructional models that need to be considered are trilingual programs that include Spanish, English, and American Sign Language (ASL). Author recognized that Hispanic/Latino Deaf students are likely to possess varying degrees of proficiency in Spanish, English, and ASL. This can range from being literate in all three to being unable to read and write in either English or Spanish. Assessment of the students language skills were recommended as the first step. The author then outlined a series of logical, developmental instructional steps that teachers may use. The application of these steps were presented through his description of his teaching experiences with a 16 year old deaf student from a family that had immigrated to Florida from Mexico.