Bibliography(Items are alphabetized by author's last name.)

Anderson, G. B. (1992). Multiculturalism: a strategy for success. The Lone Star, pp.4-6. Quarterly publication of the Texas School for the Deaf at Austin.

Paper based on a keynote presentation at the 1992 Statewide Conference on the Education of the deaf, held in Austin, Texas. Focuses on increasing diversity within the school-aged deaf population and encourages educators to advocate for educational policies and curricula designed to more adequately respond to the multicultural education needs of students.

Anderson, G. B. (1993). A new agenda for deafness rehabilitation: Embracing multicultural diversity. Journal of the American Deafness and Rehabilitation Association, 27,2, 27-32.

Focuses on emerging demographic changes among target groups served by deafness rehabilitation professionals. Article concludes with guidelines for addressing cultural diversity within organizations and agencies.

Anderson, G. B. & McGee, S. (1996). Helping minority individuals through successful school and work transitions. In M. Kolvitz (Ed.), Challenge of change: Beyond the horizon. Proceedings of the Seventh Biennial Regional Conference on Postsecondary Education of Persons who are Deaf or Hard of Hearing (pp. 181-193). Knoxville, TN. Postsecondary Education Consortium.

Summarized the results of two national research projects conducted at the University of Arkansas that focused primarily on deaf or hard of hearing individuals from diverse racial or ethnic backgrounds. One was a national study of the post high school transition experiences of a sample of high school seniors. Results indicated that one to two years after completion of high school, more than three-fourths of the respondents were either enrolled full-time in a postsecondary training program, working full-time, or working and attending school on a part-time basis. The second study examined factors that contribute to successful entry and advancement of a sample of individuals employed in professional and technical jobs. Results indicated that some of the factors that make a difference in one's educational and career success include: persistence in achieving goals, a strong sense of self-pride, and skill in self-advocacy and problem-solving.

Anderson, G. B. (1998). In their own words: Researching stories about the lives of multicultural deaf people. In Deaf studies V: Toward 2000-Unity and diversity, Conference Proceedings (pp. 1-16), Washington, D.C.: College for Continuing Education, Gallaudet University.

Presents biographical profiles of several about the lives and achievements of deaf individuals from diverse racial and ethnic backgrounds. Profiles were obtained from literature published since the 1988 that were directed to a national audience. Four major themes were identified based on content analyses of the profiles. Also discussed were the demographic changes and increasing diversity within the American deaf community.

Andrews, J., & Jordan, D. (1993). Minority and minority-deaf professionals. American Annals of the Deaf, 138, (5), 388-396.

Summarized the results of a national survey of 6,043 professionals employed in 349 schools and programs for deaf students. Study sought information on ethnic background, hearing status, and geographical distribution of educators of deaf students. Results indicated that about 90% of the teachers were white, 7% black, 2% Hispanic/Latino, and 1% Asian/Pacific. Of the 805 teachers who were deaf, 11% were from diverse racial and ethnic backgrounds. Geographically, most of the black and Hispanic/Latino teachers were employed in programs located in the South. Article concludes with recommendations for university-based teacher preparation programs and educational programs serving deaf students.

Bowe, F. G. (1971). Non-white deaf persons: Educational, psychological, and occupational considerations. A review of the literature. American Annals of the Deaf, 116, 357-361.

Identified several key questions that remained unanswered since major research studies had yet to be published regarding the educational, psychological, or occupational attainments of deaf persons from diverse racial/ethnic groups. The unanswered questions included the following: How many nonwhite deaf are there in the U.S. today? What are their achievement levels? Occupations? Earnings? Generally, what is the effect of the additional minority group status upon deaf persons? The few available articles found in the literature by the author indicated that, in general, deaf persons from diverse racial/ethnic groups lagged behind their white peers with regard to educational and employment attainments and income.

Brashear, V. & Glelch, P. (1994). Cultural diversity: Developing understanding and sensitivity. Proceedings of the Sixth Biennial Regional Conference on Postsecondary Education for Persons who are Deaf and Hard of Hearing (pp. 67-70). Knoxville, TN: Postsecondary Education Consortium, University of Tennessee.

Presents an overview of a cultural diversity workshop titled, "Improving Communication Through Cultural Awareness." The workshop is designed to help participants examine the effect of prejudice, stereotyping, and discrimination have on organizations where people work and in communities where people live. The hands-on approach of the workshop is also intended to help participants identify and address personal issues that influence their ability to communicate as well as live and work together with people who come from traditions and cultures different from their own. The workshop was suggested as a model that could be used by programs and personnel involved with serving students who are deaf or hard of hearing to enhance awareness and sensitivity to cultural diversity.

California School for the Deaf at Fremont (1997, March). Diversity in deaf cultures. The California News, 112, (20), 1-8.

Describes a "Cultural Diversity Day" event that occurred at the California School for the Deaf in February, 1997. Seven speakers representing diverse cultural backgrounds were invited. The speakers included Deaf persons from Native American, Japanese, Ethiopian, Jamaican American, Mexican, and African American heritages. Each speaker talked about their own cultural experiences, shared artifacts from the culture, and taught some signs unique to their culture.

Christiansen, J. B. (1987). Minorities. In J. V. Van Cleve (Ed.) Gallaudet encyclopedia of deaf people and deafness. (Vol. 1, pp. 270-276). New York: McGraw-Hill.

Provides a summary of the demographic, educational, occupational, and socioeconomic characteristics of deaf persons who are black, Hispanic/Latino, Native American, and Asian/Pacific Islander in the United States. Much of the information is based on data obtained from literature published from the 1930's through the mid-1980's.

Christensen, K. M. (2000). Deaf Plus: A multicultural perspective. San Diego, CA: DawnSign Press.

Book includes a collection of 11 essays that aims to provide teachers, administrators, psychologists, social workers, and families with deaf children information about the multilingual and multicultural dimensions of the Deaf community. Among the themes addressed in the book are a historical overview of multicultural education programs for deaf students; the myriad of issues related to schooling and family involvement which confront children from diverse immigrant or refugee backgrounds; and the educational/social needs of deaf children from Spanish heritage backgrounds including persons who identify themselves as Hispanic, Latino, or Chicano. Interspersed throughout the book are recommendations for educational reform to facilitate increased dialogue, research, and practice to more adequately meet the cultural and linguistic needs of deaf children in the 21st century.

Christensen, K. M. & Delgado, G. L. (Eds.). (1993). Multicultural issues in deafness. New York: Longman Publishing Company.

Book contains 11 chapters that focus on four target populations of deaf children-those from African American, American Indian, Hispanic/Latino, and Asian Pacific families. The book is divided into three main sections-multicultural issues impacting on the education of deaf students, overview of the four target groups that comprise the primary focus of the book, and envisioning the future education of deaf students from diverse racial and ethnic backgrounds.

Cohen, O. P. (1997). Giving all children a chance: Advantages of an antiracist approach to the education of deaf children. American Annals of the Deaf, 143, (2), 80-82.

Author indicates that a multicultural approach to educating deaf students is often limited to a description of ethnic differences because of the influence racism can have on educational policy and curricula in schools. Suggests that schools for deaf students are in a strategic position to respond to the need for change and reform in the education of deaf students of color. Encourages schools to consider antiracist models in education that address the social and political ramifications of racial and ethnic differences.

Cohen, O. P. (1993). Multicultural education and the deaf community: A conversation about survival. In M. Garretson (Ed.), Deafness 1993-2013. Deaf American Monograph, vol. 43, pp. 23-26. (Silver Spring, MD: National Association of the Deaf).

Using a question and answer approach, author advocates for deaf people to develop a shared vision of cultural pluralism that embraces the growing diversity evident within the deaf community. The ultimate goal is to make it possible for all the diverse groups of deaf individuals to be included fully as part of the American Deaf community while being able to maintain their unique cultural identities.

Cohen, O. P. (1990). Current and future needs of minority hearing-impaired children and youth. In G. B. Anderson & D. Watson (Eds.), Habilitation and rehabilitation of hearing-impaired adolescents in the mainstream. (pp. 261-273). Little Rock, AR: Rehabilitation Research and Training Center for Persons who are Deaf or Hard of Hearing, University of Arkansas.

Examines the social realities and dynamics of black and Hispanic families with deaf children. Discusses issues within and outside of schools for deaf students that impact on the educational development of black and Hispanic/Latino deaf children. Ways in which ethnic and cultural diversity can be addressed through school policies and practices are also discussed.

Cohen, O. P., Fischgrund, J. E., & Redding, R. (1990). Deaf children from ethnic, linguistic and racial minority backgrounds: An overview. American Annals of the Deaf, 135, (2), 67-73.

Provides a summary of demographic information on deaf students from diverse racial and ethnic backgrounds enrolled in educational programs in the U.S. Data derived from the Annual Survey of Deaf and Hard of Hearing Youth. Discusses the results of a survey indicating significant underrepresentation of deaf and hearing persons of color employed as administrators, teachers, and school board members. Recommendations from the first national conference on Black and Hispanic deaf youth held in Washington, D.C. in 1989 are also discussed.

Dunn, L. M. (1994). Educating minority deaf people for leadership roles in developing countries. In H. Lane (Ed.), Parallel Views: Education and Access for Deaf People in France and the United States (170-179). Washington, DC: Gallaudet University Press.

Focuses on the role postsecondary education can play in training and preparing deaf people from diverse racial and ethnic backgrounds to become leaders within their communities and to provide leadership in the Third World countries from which their parents or ancestors immigrated. Also discusses some of the barriers that culturally diverse deaf students often encounter in their efforts to obtain higher education such as those that are financial, attitudinal, and racial.

Fischgrund, J. E., Cohen, O. P. & Clarkson, R. L. (1987). Hearing-impaired children in black and hispanic families. In O. P. Cohen & G. Long (Eds.), The Volta Review, 86, (5), 59-67.

Provides an overview of the changing demographics of the American population, in general, and among families and students being served by educational programs for the deaf. Stresses that attention must be given to ensuring that educators and other professional personnel have access to training and staff development to acquire skills and sensitivity to work with families of deaf students from diverse racial and ethnic backgrounds. Addresses some of the social realities faced by black and Hispanic/Latino families, challenges these families face parenting their deaf children, and the implications of receiving appropriate educational services from schools for deaf students.

Gold, R., & Strong, M. (1991). A year in the life of DeafCan: minority deaf students in a community college. San Francisco, California: University of California Center on Deafness.

Report describes student and staff experiences in a special program for deaf students established at a community college in Oakland, CA. The deaf student population attending the program were primarily Black, Hispanic/Latino, and Asian/Pacific Islander. The report is organized as a series of portraits of the staff and several students whose progress was tracked and followed for one full school year. The progress of the students is described through case studies, using data from observation, interviews, and teacher reports. The results of the study were summarized around four main themes.

Gragg, V. (1992, September/October). Every child can succeed academically. Perspectives in Education and Deafness, 2, (1), 2-6.

Focuses on how educators can create more positive student learning environments that help raise the academic achievements of deaf students from diverse racial and ethnic backgrounds. Emphasizes that change must occur within every area of the educational structure such as the organizational framework, curriculum and instruction, and assessment strategies. Within each of these education structures, an outline of suggested changes and recommendations that can make a difference are offered.

Grant, N. C. & Wu, C. L. (1992, Spring). Weavings: Multicultural families with deaf/hearing impaired children. Social Work Perspectives, 3, (1), 12-16.

Focuses on deaf and hard of hearing persons and their families who are immigrants or persons from diverse racial/ethnic backgrounds. Discusses the implications of linguistic and cultural issues they may encounter when seeking various community-based social services. The issues may include those related to the language and culture of the U.S., the language and culture of the American Deaf community, and their own native language and culture. Suggestions are offered to assist professionals become aware of and sensitive to these potential issues to enable these target groups and access and benefit from available community services.

Harrigan, A. K. (1997). Interpreters and the diverse deaf community: An anti-racist response. Journal of Interpretation, 101-114.

Provides a commentary and personal perspective on the challenges of preparing interpreters to meet the needs of the deaf community which is becoming more racially and ethnically diverse. Emphasizes significant progress will not occur until the issues of racism and oppression are addressed by individuals and organizations involved in the interpreting profession.

Hormer, P. (1993, May/June). Celebrating diversity across the curriculum. Perspective in Education and Deafness, 14, 23-27.

Describes how a team of educators at the North Dakota School for the deaf, using whole language strategies, designed a thematic, across the curriculum, student-centered Heritage Studies Unit. The team included teachers of reading and language, math, speech, social studies, vocational preparation, art, the librarian, and dorm counselors. The Unit was designed to help students explore new sources of information, tap their own creativity, and experience various cultures.

Janesick, V. J. & Moores, D. F. (1992). Ethnic and cultural considerations. In T. Kluwin, D. Moores, & M. Gausted (Eds.), Toward effective public school programs for deaf students. (pp. 49-65). New York, NY: Teachers College Press.

Discusses topics such as membership in multiple worlds and cultural issues in educational programs with deaf children. Article describe and identify key components of an effective public school program for the deaf students from diverse racial and ethnic backgrounds.

Kluwin, T. N. (1994). The interaction of race, gender and social class effects in the education of deaf students. American Annals of the Deaf, 139, 5, 465-471.

A longitudinal study of deaf adolescents in local public schools supports previous observations about racial and gender effects and suggest that social class is an effect in the education of the deaf. Findings also suggested that White and Asian students were more likely to be mainstreamed when compared to African American and Latino students; and African American students were more likely to be placed into special classes.

MacLeod-Gallinger, J. (1993, April). Deaf ethnic minorities, have they a double liability? Occasional paper. Rochester, NY: Office of Postsecondary Career Studies in Deafness, National Technical Institute of the Deaf.

Summarizes a presentation made at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, Atlanta, GA, in April, 1993. Reports on a comparison by race of the educational, labor force participation, occupations, earnings and socioeconomic status of deaf adults. Results demonstrated that deaf persons from diverse ethnic groups show patterns of attainment which mirror those of their ethnic counterparts in the general population, but are negatively intensified due to the combined effects of being both deaf and an ethnic minority.

MacNeil, B. (1990). Educational needs for multicultural hearing-impaired students in the public school system. American Annals of the Deaf, 135, 2, 75-82.

Provides information on the educational problems and needs of deaf and hard of hearing students from three major racial/ethnic groups-- African American, Hispanic/Latino, and Asian/Pacific Islander. Among the issues addressed are those related to demographic shifts and the high dropout rate of students. Suggestions are offered for enhancing assessment practices, curriculum development, and instructional strategies.

McCaskill-Emerson, C. (1993). Multicultural/minority issues in deaf studies. In J. Cebe (Ed.), Deaf studies III: Building bridges in the 21st century (pp. 45-51). Washington, D.C.: College for Continuing Education, Gallaudet University.

Summary of a plenary presentation given at the Deaf Studies III conference held in Washington, D.C. in April, 1993. To help foster diversity awareness among deaf students in K-12 programs, suggests that schools develop Deaf-centered multicultural curricula. This type of curricula model would include learning about Deaf culture, the diverse racial and ethnic cultures that are part of the Deaf community, and the diverse cultures that are part of the hearing world.

McConnell, L. (1993, Spring). Embracing diversity. Gallaudet Today, 18-20.

A newly established unit at Gallaudet University, Multicultural Student Programs, is the focus of this article. The article highlights the purpose of this new unit in embracing the cultural diversity of Gallaudet's students.

Moore, M., & Panara, R. (1996). Great deaf Americans. (2nd ed.). Rochester, NY: Deaf Life Press.

Book includes profiles on the lives and achievements of 77 American deaf men and women. Included are 9 profiles of deaf persons from diverse racial and ethnic backgrounds. Among those profiled are Dr. Robert Davila, highest ranking deaf person to serve in the federal government, John Yeh, entrepreneur, Dr. Shirley Allen, first American black deaf woman to earn a doctorate, and Curtis Pride, professional baseball player.

Moore, N. (Ed.). (1990-91, Winter). Deaf minority groups: Looking back, moving forward. Gallaudet Today, 21, 2.

Special issue focusing on deaf persons from diverse racial and ethnic backgrounds. Includes topics on the history of National Black Deaf Advocates, brief profiles of deaf persons of color who are making a difference in various fields of work, and a description of a staff development program at the Model Secondary School for the Deaf (MSSD) designed to reduce racial, cultural, and gender biases on campus.

Moores, D. F. (1998). Race, ethnicity, and minority status. American Annals of the Deaf, 143, (4), 291-292.

Discusses the ambiguity and inefficiency of attempting to classify people into separate, discrete categories such as racial, ethnic, and minority status. Emphasizes that many racial and ethnic categories overlap and thus millions of Americans can claim membership in two or more categories. Examples of the extent of overlap and diversity across the various racial and ethnic groups are discussed.

Nash, K. (1992). The academic experience of minority deaf postsecondary students: A study. Proceedings of the Fifth Biennial Regional Conference on Postsecondary Education for Persons who are Deaf and Hard of Hearing (pp. 69-88). Knoxville, TN: Postsecondary Education Consortium, University of Tennessee.

Describes the emergence of the "minority" deaf population as a major factor in enrollment planning and programming among postsecondary programs for the deaf nationally, describes the academic experience of various race/ethnic groups and discusses some of the implications of this study for the Nation's 150 postsecondary programs for the deaf. Paper begins with an analysis of the changing demographics of the deaf school age population and the relationship of this change to the emergence of the minority population as "the new majority."

Nash, K. (1991). An analysis of the academic experience of minority students at NTID. Occasional paper. Rochester, NY: Office of Career Studies and Institutional Research, Rochester Institute of Technology, National Technical Institute for the Deaf.

Analyzes the results of the study of the academic experiences of minority students at NTID. Strategies that NTID might undertake to increase the number of minority students enrolled are: reduce attrition, create a supportive environment, conduct longitudinal research, emphasize recruitment in South and West, create a High School-College Support program, establish a pre-admission high potential program, and refine special orientation/awareness programs.

National Multicultural Interpreter Project (1999). Bibliography on multicultural and multilingual topics and resource materials for sign language interpreter educators and students. El Paso, TX: National Multicultural Interpreter Project, El Paso Community College,

Web-based bibliography organized into three broad categories: general multicultural and multilingual resource materials; multicultural and multilingual materials that reference specific cultural or linguistic deaf individuals or groups; and multicultural and multilingual materials that focus on interpreters or interpreting. Resources focus on four major target groups: African American/Black; Hispanic/Latino; Asian/Pacific Islander; and American Indian/Alaskan Native.

Ramos, A., Anderson, H., Apocada, M., Barksdale, P., Dunn, L., Samuels, T., Serna, R., & Velez, I. (1995). Deaf minorities in the workplace: Beating the odds. In G. B. Anderson & D. Watson (Eds.), Partnerships 2000: Achieving a barrier-free workplace. (pp. 89-98). Little Rock, AR: Rehabilitation Research and Training Center for Persons who are Deaf or Hard of Hearing, University of Arkansas.

Summary of a panel session on experiences and achievements of 8 deaf professionals who were African-American, African, or Hispanic/Latino. The positions they were employed in included: executive director of a state commission for the deaf and hard of hearing; outreach manger for a telephone relay service program; Manager of a statewide children's support outreach program; head of finance for an aircraft manufacturing company; special needs coordinator with a telecommunications company; special assistant to the director of adult education program for deaf adults; director of a Gallaudet University regional center program.

Reagan, T. (1990). Cultural considerations in the education of deaf children. In D. F. Moores & K. P. Meadow-Orlans (Eds.), Educational and developmental aspects of deafness (pp. 73-84). Washington, DC: Gallaudet University Press.

To establish policy guidelines to improve educational practice that addresses issues of culture and cultural diversity in the education of deaf students, an alternative model is one that considers deaf people as comprising a dominated cultural and linguistic minority in American society. Attention is given to diversity that exists among deaf people with regard to membership in multiple cultural groups. A illustrative model for envisioning such diversity and "mapping" a deaf person's cultural group membership is presented.

Redding, R. (1997). Changing times, changing society: Implications for professionals in deaf education. American Annals of the Deaf, 142, (2), 83-85.

Emphasizes that while significant demographic shifts have occurred among school-aged deaf children, the demographic make-up of the deaf education profession has remained largely unchanged. This has important implications for student exposure and access to positive role models. Strategies for attracting deaf and hearing professionals from diverse racial and ethnic backgrounds are suggested.

Redding, R. (1996). A majority of silence: A minority within a minority. The Insider, North Carolina Department of Human Services, Division of Services for the Deaf and Hard of Hearing, 1-3.

Summarizes the historical and current status in educational services to deaf students from diverse racial, ethnic, linguistic backgrounds. Also discussed are the implications of dual minority group membership (i.e., a minority within a minority) and the shortage of professional personnel, deaf or hearing, from racial/ethnic backgrounds who are employed as teachers and administrators in schools serving deaf students.

Redding, R. & Anderson, G. B. (1994). Does full inclusion offer an Rx for enhancing the education of minority deaf students? American Annals of the Deaf, 139, (2), 169-171.

Responding to increased support for inclusion of students with disabilities in regular classrooms, offers suggestions on how schools can respond to the educational needs of deaf students from diverse racial, ethnic, and linguistic backgrounds. Topics addressed included those related the role of school leaders, importance of pre-service training and staff development, assessment and testing practices, and co-curricular learning opportunities.

Sass-Lehrer, M., Gerner de Garcia, B., & Rovins, M. (1995, September/October). Creating a multicultural school climate for deaf children and their families. Perspectives in Education and Deafness, 14, 1-6.

Presents guidelines and suggestions, based on research literature and the experiences of the authors, to help educators of deaf students respond to the needs students and families from diverse racial and ethnic backgrounds. Emphasizes the need for building learning environments that promote and value . Among the topics addressed are

Schildroth, A. N. & Hotto, S. A. (1995). Race and ethnic background in the annual survey of deaf and hard of hearing children and youth. American Annals of the Deaf, 140 (2), 96-99.

No other demographic or educational variable has shifted more dramatically in the annual survey of deaf and hard of hearing children and youth than that of race or ethnic background. The tables and the notes accompanying them in this article summarize various aspects of this shift. These tables present data reported to the annual survey, largely from the 1993-94 school year.

Schmitz, K. (1991, Winter/Spring). 1st, 2nd & 3rd Impressions. Deaf minority women juggle multicultural identities. NTID Focus, 20-23.

Highlights the barriers to success experienced by 3 different deaf women of different ethnic backgrounds and how they overcame their obstacles.

Seabon, P. (1992, Fall). The black deaf experience. Striving for excellence and equity in education. NTID Focus, 12-15.

Seabon, P. (1991, Summer). Culture in the curriculum. Learning the ABCs of diversity. NTID Focus, 19-22.

NTID explains how they have broadened their curriculum by incorporating cultural practices, traditions, and beliefs into traditional curricula; offering general education workshops and courses that focus on specific cultures; and providing "independent study" opportunities in which students research and develop a project on the culture of their choice.

Shettle, A. (1993, Spring). Shattering the glass ceiling. Gallaudet Today, 8-17.

Gallaudet Today interviewed several deaf women on campus for their perspectives on the changing role of women at Gallaudet. The consensus is that their status has indeed improved. These women also suggest that deaf women in minority groups still have a long way to go to achieve full equality.

Waubonsee Community College (1996). Enhancing racial and ethnic diversity in the interpreting profession. Sugar Grove, IL: Region V Interpreter Training Project, Waubonsee Community College.

Videotape proceedings of a national teleclass program co-sponsored by the National Multicultural Interpreter Project at El Paso Community College and hosted by Region V Interpreter Training Program at Waubonsee Community College. The three-hour teleclass included segments focusing on four target groups of consumers of interpreting services: African-American, Hispanic/Latino, Asian/Pacific Islander, and Native American Indian. Program participants included Glenn Anderson (Little Rock, AR), Fidel Martinez (Chicago, IL), Jan Nishimura (Washington, D.C.), Jonanthan Hopkins (Rochester, NY), and Mary Mooney (El Paso, TX).