Ashton, G., Brown Kurz, K., Cagle, K., Newell, W., Peterson, R., & Zinza, J. (2008). Standards for learning American Sign Language: A project of the American Sign Language Teachers Association. Rochester, NY: ASLTA.

Easterbrooks, S., & Baker, S. (2002). Language learning in children who are deaf and hard of hearing: Multiple pathways. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.

Emmorey, K. (2002). Language, cognition, and the brain: Insights from sign language research. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Gee, J. P. (1989). Literacy, discourse, and linguistics: Introduction. Journal of Education, 171, 5-17.

Geeslin, D., Smith-Warshaw, J., Costello, P., Singleton, J., Czubek, T., Herzig, M., Hoffmeister, R., & Enns, C. (2013). ASL content standards for grades K-12: Research foundations and organizational framework. Unpublished manuscript. Washington, DC: Laurent Clerc National Deaf Education Center.

Hoffmeister, R. J. (2000). A piece of the puzzle: ASL and reading comprehension in deaf children. In C. Chamberlain, J. Morford, & R. Mayberry (Eds.), Language acquisition by eye (pp. 143-63). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Holowka, S., Brousseau-Lapre, F., & Petitto, L. (2002). Semantic and conceptual knowledge underlying bilingual babies' first signs and words, Language Learning, 52(2), 205-262.

Kuntze, M. (2004). Literacy acquisition and deaf children: A study of the interaction between ASL and written English. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Stanford University.

Lillo-Martin, D. (1999). Modality effects and modularity in language acquisition: The acquisition of American Sign Language. In W. Ritchie & T. Bhatia (Eds.), Handbook of child language acquisition (pp. 531-67). New York: Academic Press.

Marschark, M., Schick, B., & Spencer, P. (2006). Understanding sign language development of deaf children. In B. Schick, M. Marschark, & P. Spencer (Eds.), Advances in the sign language development of deaf children (pp. 3-18). New York: Oxford University Press.

Newport, E. L., & Meier, R. P. (1986). The acquisition of American Sign Language. In D. I. Slobin (Ed.), The crosslinguistic study of language acquisition, Volume 1: The data. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

Stokoe, W. (1960). Sign language structure: An outline of the visual communication system of the American deaf. Studies in Linguistics, Occasional Papers 8.

Stokoe, W. (2005). Sign language structure: An outline of the visual communication systems of the American deaf. Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education, 10(1), 3-37.

Strong, M., & Prinz, P. (2000). Is American Sign Language skill related to English literacy? In C. Chamberlain, J. P. Morford, & R. I. Mayberry (Eds.), Language acquisition by eye (pp. 131-41). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

Virnig, S. (2011, November 18). Seeing is believing: What we must do to advance visual-manual education. Presentation at Visual Language Summit, Center for Mind and Brain, Davis, CA.

United Nations. (2006). Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. Retrieved from