When to Use 'A,' 'An,' or 'The'

There are several exceptions, or more complicated situations than the above chart covers. Below we have laid out some of the general and specific rules about using A, AN, and THE.

Remember, in order to use A, AN, and THE properly, you must know whether or not a noun is a Count or Non-Count Noun. (A count noun is the name of something that can be counted: one book, two books, three books. A non-count noun is the name of something that cannot be counted: milk, flour, freedom, justice).


Use "a" or "an" Use "the" Don't Use "a," "an," or "the"
General Rules Use "a" or "an" with a singular count noun when you mean "one of many," "any," "in general."
  • Bob is a student (one of many students).
  • I like a good movie (one of many movies).
Use "the" with any noun when the meaning is specific; for example, when the noun names the only one (or one) of a kind.
  • Adam was the first man (the only 'first man').
  • New York is the largest city in the United States (only one city can be 'the largest').
  • We live on the earth (the only Earth we know).
  • Have you heard the news (specific news)?
Don't Use "a," "an," or "the" with a non-count noun when you mean "any," "in general."
  • We believe in love (in general).
  • He gave me information (not specific).
Use "a" or "an" the first time you use a noun in a paragraph.
  • I saw a movie last night.
  • A man ran into the street.
Use "the" the second time you use that same noun in the same paragraph.
  • I saw a movie last night. The movie was entertaining.
  • A man ran into the street. A car hit the man.
Don't Use "a," "an," or "the" with a plural count noun when you mean "some of many things," "any," "in general."
  • Movies are entertaining (some movies; movies in general).
  • She likes men (in general).
Title Use "a" or "an" if the title is not a specific title.
  • a president
  • a doctor
  • a queen
Use "the" if a specific person has a title or if only one person has a title.
  • the president
  • the doctor
  • the Queen of England
Don't Use "a," "an," or "the" if the person's name is given.
  • President Kennedy
  • Dr. Yang
  • Queen Elizabeth
Names of Countries Non-specific
  • a country
Use "the" if the name of the country is plural or indicates a group (of states, islands, etc.)
  • the United States
  • the Netherlands
  • the Phillipines
Don't Use "a," "an," or "the"
  • Russia
  • South Africa
  • Holland
  • Canada
  • Great Britian
  • England
Names of Continents Non-specific
  • a continent

Don't Use "a," "an," or "the"
  • Africa
  • Asia
  • Europe
  • North America
Names of Some Geographical Areas
Use "the"
  • the South Pole
  • the West
  • the South
  • the North East
Don't Use "a," "an," or "the"
  • Western Europe
Names of Cities and States Non-specific
  • a city
  • a state

Don't Use "a," "an," or "the"
  • New York
  • Paris
  • Washington
Exception:
  • the District of Columbia
Names of Streets

Don't Use "a," "an," or "the"
  • Pennsylvania Avenue
  • Fourth Street
  • Florida Avenue
Names of Oceans, Rivers, Seas, Deserts, Forests, Canals Use a/an for non-specific
  • an ocean
  • a river
  • a sea
  • a desert
Use "the"
  • the Pacific Ocean
  • the Mediteranean Sea
  • the Potomac River
  • the C & O Canal
  • the Atlantic Ocean
  • the Painted Desert

Names of Lakes Non-specific
  • a lake

Don't Use "a," "an," or "the"
  • Lake Ontario
  • Lake Geneva
Names of Monuments, Memorials, Parks, and National Shrines Use a/an if you write about a non-specific building or monument.
  • a building
  • a museum
  • an institution
Use "the"
  • the Capitol
  • the White House
  • the Senate Office Building
  • the Sam Rayburn Building
  • the National Archives
  • the Library of Congress
  • the National Gallery of Art
  • the Smithsonian Institute

Names of Colleges, Universities, and Other Schools Use a/an for non-specific colleges or schools.
  • a school
  • a university
Use "the" if the title of the school has "of" or "for" in it.
  • the University of Maryland
  • the Catholic University of America
  • the Maryland School for the Deaf
  • The Model Secondary School for the Deaf
Don't Use "a," "an," or "the" if the school is named for a person or place.
  • Gallaudet University
  • Harvard University
  • George Washinton University
  • Georgetown University
  • Maryland University
  • Catholic University
Names of Buildings on Gallaudet University Campus Use a/an for non-specific buildings.
  • a dorm
  • an office
Use the with specific places that have no names.
  • the infirmary
  • the library
  • the dorm
  • the cafeteria
  • the bookstore
Don't Use "a," "an," or "the" if a building on campus is named for a person.
  • Peet Hall
  • Ely Center
  • Dawes House
  • Krug Hall
  • Hall Memorial Building
  • Hughes Gymnasium
  • Merrill Learning Center
  • Kendall School

 


 

If you are not sure what article to use with a noun, use the basic questions on the following chart as a guide. Here below are the example of Article; and for your information, in each details as well as sentence example, the group of (black) bold word(s) that use article word. It is also the group of underline that shows no article used.

 

Questions Guides Examples
1. Common/Proper:
Is it a common noun or a proper noun?
the image of right arrow It is a proper noun
the image of right arrow Singular uses no article the image of right arrow Tom Smith is here with his wife.
Plural uses the the image of right arrow The Smiths are here.

the image of right arrow


It is a common noun

the image of right arrow

2. General/Specific:
Does the reader know which thing(s) you mean?
the image of right arrow Yes, the reader knows (specific) the image of right arrow Singular uses the the image of right arrow The sun is bright.
Plural uses the the image of right arrow I like the shoes you are wearing.

the image of right arrow


No, the reader does not know (general)

the image of right arrow

3. Count/ Non-Count:
Can the noun be counted in English?
the image of right arrow Yes, it is countable the image of right arrow Singular uses a, an the image of right arrow Frank bought a new car with an old engine.
Plural uses no article the image of right arrow Books can be fun to read.

the image of right arrow

No, it is not countable (It is a Non-Count Noun) the image of right arrow Non-Count Nouns can use either way: no article, or some the image of right arrow Americans enjoy freedom and liberty.
the image of right arrow I would like some water.
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