APA Sample Research Paper

Below is a paper written using APA publication guidelines. This paper includes an example of how to write a title page; examples of how to cite quotes and paraphrases in text; and an example of how to write a reference list. The in-text citations and the reference list include examples of how to cite sources with multiple authors; edited books; web pages, including web pages with no apparent author, publication date, or city; newspaper articles; journal articles; and books with no authors. The in-text citations also include examples of how to cite sources with and without incorporating the author's name and year of publication in the sentence itself; how to refer to the same source more than once in the same paragraph; and how to cite different works by different authors at the same time. You can also read the paper to see examples of when you would need to cite something and when you don't need to.

Sometimes students are confused about when they need to cite a source and when they don't need to. One good rule of thumb is: when in doubt, CITE IT. Cite all your quotes. Also cite everything that you paraphrase (a paraphrase is when you borrow another author's ideas or information but say it in your own words). Cite all information and facts that you found from other sources. Cite all ideas that come from other authors. In short, you need to cite almost everything! Don't worry -- you'll get used to it!

EXCEPTIONS: you don't need to cite your own opinions. You don't need to cite another source if you are describing something that you, personally, have experienced. (However, if you are describing your own experience, you do need to say that in your paper.) You also don't need to cite information that is very common knowledge. Example: pretty much everyone knows that the Declaration of Independence was officially signed on July 4, 1776. You don't need to cite a source for this kind of information. However, some people might not know (or might have forgotten) where the second battle of the Civil War was held, or how a TTY "translates" beeps into letters. You would need to cite this kind of information.

None of the references (books, articles, etc.) cited in the attached paper are real. They were all invented to help show you how to cite different kinds of materials. English Works! has some other handouts that you might find helpful:

All English Works! handouts are available at the English Works! Department at SAC 1221 as well as on the web.


APA Sample Term Paper 1

Running head: APA SAMPLE TERM PAPER














APA Sample Term Paper: Tutoring College Students with AD(H)D

Andrea Shettle

English Works! Department
Gallaudet University




















APA Sample Term Paper 2

Sample APA Research Paper: Tutoring College Students with AD(H)D

           We have all heard of the schoolboy who doesn't know how to stay in his seat at school; instead he climbs furniture and makes noise during work time. We have also all known a schoolgirl who looks out the window quietly daydreaming instead of paying attention to the teacher. We now know that the hyperactive boy has a neurological disorder called attention deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD) (Hallowell & Ratey, 1994; Latham, 2000). Experts recently have agreed that the daydreaming girl also has ADHD - sometimes called ADD because it occurs without hyperactivity (Hallowell & Ratey, 1994). But what happens when the child with AD(H)D grows up? How can tutors work with college students who have AD(H)D?

What AD(H)D Is

           College tutors need to understand what AD(H)D is before learning how to accommodate this condition. The three most important symptoms of AD(H)D are inattentiveness, impulsivity, and hyperactivity (DSM-IV, 1994; Hallowell & Ratey, 1994; Latham, 2000). The Diagnostic Statistical Manual of Mental Health (DSM-IV) explains that simply having these symptoms is not enough to diagnose AD(H)D because everyone sometimes has the same symptoms. These symptoms must be "persistent" and they must be "more frequent and severe" than they are for other people at about the same level of development (DSM-IV, p. 78).

           It is possible to diagnose AD(H)D later in life, but only if the symptoms began before age 7. Also, symptoms should cause problems in two or more settings, for example at both work and home. Furthermore, AD(H)D can only be diagnosed if the symptoms make it hard for the person to learn how to function well socially, academically, and at work (DSM-IV, p. 78). Symptoms might not show up if the person is under "very strict control," is in a new

APA Sample Term Paper 3

place, or is doing "especially interesting" activities, or is working with only one other person (p. 79).
           AD(H)D is not a single condition; instead, there are three subtypes. People with the predominantly inattentive type have trouble paying attention. Those with the predominantly hyperactive-impulsive type are hyperactive and impulsive. The combined type includes all three major symptoms (DSM-IV, p. 80). Perhaps the most well known symptom of AD(H)D is hyperactivity, but Hallowell and Ratey (1994) emphasize that not all people with AD(H)D are hyperactive. Indeed, they say that many people with ADD-mostly girls and women-are quiet daydreamers (p. 153). Robertson (2000) notes that children with AD(H)D are "consistently inconsistent." That means the same student could do very well in school one month then very poorly the next (Hallowell & Ratey, p. 65). Hallowell and Ratey also point out that people with AD(H)D are sometime able to hyper focus. That means they may focus very well on one thing for a long time and will have trouble stopping when it is time to finish.
           What exactly does it mean to be inattentive, impulsive, or hyperactive? Some specific symptoms of inattentiveness can include overlooking details, making careless mistakes, doing messy work, having trouble paying attention, changing from one activity to another without finishing anything, and being easily distracted. Some examples of impulsivity include impatience, frequently interrupting other people, talking at the wrong time, clowning around, and doing dangerous things without thinking about what will happen. Hyperactivity in children can include fidgeting and squirming, leaving one's seat when one isn't supposed to, running and climbing at the wrong time, having trouble playing quietly, and talking too much (DSM-IV, pp. 78-79).


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AD(H)D in Adults

           Research into AD(H)D among adults is still new (Hallowell & Ratey, 1994). People used to believe that AD(H)D was a childhood disorder that could be outgrown. However, researchers now understand that they were wrong-AD(H)D can continue through college age and the rest of one's life (Latham, 2000). Up to two-thirds of AD(H)D children become AD(H)D adults (Hallowell & Ratey, p. 6).
           College students who have AD(H)D may have trouble organizing, prioritizing, and finishing their work on time, doing long assignments, doing tasks that have many steps, writing papers, handling math requirements, interacting with faculty and students in an appropriate way, meeting expectations, and following rules (Latham, 2000). AD(H)D adults in general often feel they are underachievers, are disorganized, procrastinate, do many projects at the same time without finishing anything, can't stand boredom, can't focus, have low tolerance for frustration, are impulsive, worry a lot, and have mood swings. Hyperactive adults are not as hyper as children, but they are often restless and may pace a lot, drum their fingers, or fidget (Hallowell & Ratey, p. 73).

Tips for Working with AD(H)D Students

           There is very little literature on how to tutor college students with AD(H)D. However, many authors have shared ideas on how teachers can help children in their classroom who have AD(H)D. Other authors have shared ideas on how people with AD(H)D can help themselves become more organized. Some of these ideas may be useful for tutors who work with college students.
           Booth (1998) emphasizes that it is important for teachers (and, one presumes, tutors) to be aware that "no two students with ADD or LD are alike and that there are multiple approaches


APA Sample Term Paper 5

… that can and will be different from student to student" (para. 7 under subhead "Teacher attitudes and beliefs"). Accordingly, Booth encourages teachers to be flexible. Similarly, one fact sheet suggests that teachers should find out what specific things are hard for each student. For example, one student with AD(H)D might have trouble starting a task, and another student might have trouble finishing one task and starting the next ("General Information," 1999, August, para. 2 under subhead "Teacher Tips"). Hallowell and Ratey (1994) say that teachers should be open to new ideas because sometimes what helps AD(H)D students may seem "eccentric" (p. 255).
           Booth (1998) strongly encourages that teachers use accommodations to help students learn to become more independent. Accordingly, teachers should only give students additional interventions or accommodations when the students really need them. The goal should always be to slowly remove accommodations when possible. Teachers can provide support in planning long projects until the student gradually learns how to use better time management skills and how to plan ahead better.
           People who work with children or other students with AD(H)D can help them by reminding them about assignments they need to do. Also, teachers should give directions both face to face and in writing. When a person with ADD is daydreaming, it can help to make eye contact with the person. The eye contact "pulls" them away from their daydream so they can pay attention (Hallowell & Ratey, 1994). Students with AD(H)D can usually focus better in a quiet, "low distraction" work area ("General Information," 1999, August; Booth, 1998). One author suggests that college students with AD(H)D use the last 15 minutes of each study period to review their progress on their various projects and to plan what they will need to do the next day (Latham, 2000).

APA Sample Term Paper 6

           Structure is important for people with AD(H)D. People with AD(H)D can help themselves by making lists to remind themselves of things they need to do (Hallowell & Ratey, 1994, p. 255). They should divide large tasks into small ones and give themselves deadlines for finishing each small part (Hallowell & Ratey, p. 247). Sometimes it helps to have an ADD coach. An ADD coach asks what tasks the AD(H)D person needs to do and what they're doing to prepare, and can even help choose, prioritize, and define goals (Hallowell & Ratey, pp. 226-227).

Tutoring College Students with AD(H)D

           Perhaps a regular tutor could serve in the role of an ADD coach by helping AD(H)D students divide each big project into many smaller steps and decide when they will complete each step. For example, a student who needs to do a term paper could choose a deadline for each of the following steps: choosing a topic, deciding what information he or she needs to gather, finishing the research, writing a rough draft of the paper and showing it to the tutor, revising the paper and showing it to the tutor again.
           When tutors meet with students, they should ask them where they concentrate best. Can they concentrate well if they work at the tutor's usual table? Or should the tutor and student meet somewhere else? Also, tutors should be ready to repeat or write down their directions. In addition, tutors can make eye contact more often to help students with AD(H)D stop daydreaming and focus better on their tutoring session. If a tutor meets with an AD(H)D student on a regular basis, then the last five or ten minutes of each session can be used to discuss what homework the student will do before the next session and what things they will work on during the next session. Above all, tutors should be flexible and should not offer more accommodation than the student needs.


APA Sample Term Paper 7

           Latham (2000) has recommended three books for college students who have AD(H)D and the people who work with them: ADD and the College Student edited by Patricia O. Quinn, M.D., New York: Brunner/Mazel, 1994; Survival Guide for College Students with ADD or LD by Kathleen G. Nadeau, Ph.D., New York: Brunner/Mazel, 1994; Higher Education Services for Students with Attention Deficit Disorder and Learning Disabilities: A Legal Guide by Patricia H. Latham, J.D., and Peter J. Latham, J.D., Washington D.C.: National Center for Law and Learning Disabilities, 1994.

Conclusion

           Whether a tutor decides to act as an ADD coach or in some other role, it can be a challenge to find the best way to work with college students who have AD(H)D. The more tutors learn about AD(H)D, and the better they understand this condition, the easier it can become to work with students with AD(H)D. It is especially important for tutors to remember that both men and women can have AD(H)D, and also that not all people with AD(H)D are hyperactive. Tutors can do a better job of working with students who have AD(H)D if they learn the many different things that teachers, parents, and professionals do to help them, and if they learn how people with AD(H)D help themselves.









 


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References

Biggs, S., & Nadeau, K. (1992, December). Students with Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD). Presented at Chesapeake Psychological Services to members of Nation's Capital Area Disability Support Services Coalition. Retrieved January 16, 2001 from http://www.adult-add.org/study/student/study_study_tips.htm

Booth, R. C. (1998). List of appropriate school-based accommodations and interventions. Highland Park, Ill.: National Attention Deficit Disorder Association. Retrieved January 16, 2001 from http://www.add.org/content/school/list.htm

Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM-IV). (1994). Washington, D.C.: American Psychiatric Association.

General information about Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder fact sheet number 19 (FS19). (1999, August). The Academy for Educational Development and the Office of Special Education Programs. Article retrieved January 16, 2001 from http://www.adult-add.org/study/teacher/study_teach_tips.htm

Hallowell, E. M., & Ratey, J. J. (1994). Driven to distraction: Recognizing and coping with Attention Deficit Disorder from childhood through adulthood. New York City: Touchstone.

Latham, P. H. (2000). Attention Deficit Disorder in college faculty and students: Partners in education. National Center for Law and Learning Disabilities. Article retrieved January 16, 2001 from http://www.adult-add.org/study/student/study_student_college.htm

Robertson, A. S. (2000). ADD/ADHD: What does it mean for parents and families when their child is diagnosed with this condition? Retrieved January 12, 2001 from http://www.adult-add.org/medical/research/research_family.htm


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