Federal funding for GURIEC ended October 2016. This website will be maintained for at least 2 years, but will not be updated. All videos on the GURIEC YouTube channel will remain available. We encourage you to download any materials you would like to keep. Through April 2017, you may still email guriec@gallaudet.edu with any questions. 

The GURIEC Video Interpreting Repository hosts a collection of articles, discussion, and other material and media dealing with Video Relay Service (VRS) interpreting and Video Remote Interpreting (VRI). We welcome suggestions for additional resources to post as an open source of information for those interested in video interpreting. Check back frequently for updates. 

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Online Discussion

RID Video Interpreting Member Section

To join the VIMS online discussion group, email VIMSgroup-subscribe@yahoogroups.com. Membership in VIMS is open to all RID members in good standing.

Reports & Research

Source Title Resource Type Link
Please note: Some journal articles are only available via subscription or university libraries.

Association of Sign Language Interpreters of the United Kingdom Video Interpreting Best Practice  Standard practice paper Read SPP
National Association of the Deaf (NAD)  Position Statement on the Use of VRI Services in Hospitals Position statement Read statement
Registry of Interpreters for the Deaf (RID)  Standard Practice Paper on Video Remote Interpreting Standard practice paper Read SPP
Registry of Interpreters for the Deaf (RID)  Standard Practice Paper on Video Relay Services Standard practice paper Read SPP
Judicial Council of California, Administrative Office of the Courts, Court Interpreters Program. (2012). Recommended Guidelines for VRI in ASL in the courtroom Report Read report
Braun, S. (2013). INTP Interpreting International Journal of Research and Practice in Interpreting Interpreting, 15(2), 200-228.  Keep your distance? Remote interpreting in legal proceedings: A critical assessment of a growing practice Journal article Read article
Brunson, J. (2008).  The practice and organization of sign language interpreting in video relay service: An institutional ethnography of access Dissertation abstract Read abstract

Cogen, C, & Cokely, D. (2015), p 16-17.

Interpreting Technology. In Report on a Study of Emerging Trends in Interpreting and Preparing Interpreters for Tomorrow: Implications for Interpreter Education Report Read report
Gottardi, K., Schafer, C., & Waterman, T. (2008).
Video Relay Interpreting Services in Victoria: An insight into the human experience surrounding Video Relay Interpreting services and an outline of the current awareness and expectations of Victorian stakeholders Undergraduate thesis Read thesis
Haualand, H. (2012). Ethnos, 79(2), 287-305. doi:10.1080/00141844.2012.688756  Video Interpreting Services: Calls for Inclusion or Redialing Exclusion? Journal article
Haualand, H. (2011),  Disability Studies Quarterly, 31(4) Interpreted Ideals and Relayed Rights: Video Interpreting Services as Objects of Politics
Journal article Read article
Marschark, M., Pelz, J. B., Convertino, C., Sapere, P., Arndt, M. E., & Seewagen, R. (2005).  American Educational Research Journal, 42(4), 727-761. Classroom Interpreting and Visual Information Processing in Mainstream Education for Deaf Students: Live or Memorex(R)? Journal article Read article
National Consortium of Interpreter Education Centers (NCIEC), Interpreting via Video Work Team: Hollrah, B., Lightfoot, M., Johnson, L., Laurion, R., & Simon, J. (2010).  Identifying effective practices in video interpreting. Report Read report
National Consortium of Interpreter Education Centers (NCIEC), Interpreting via Video Work Team. (2007). Video relay service industry research, training and material needs Report Read report
National Consortium of Interpreter Education Centers (NCIEC), Interpreting via Video Work Team. (2007). Video relay service interpreting domains and competencies Report Read report
Napier, Jemina and Leneham, Marcel (2011), Journal of Interpretation: Vol. 21: Iss. 1, Article 5 "It Was Difficult to Manage the Communication": Testing the Feasibility of Video Remote Signed Language Interpreting in Court Journal article Read article
Palmer, J. L., Reynolds, W., & Minor, R. (2012). Sign Language Studies, 12(3), 371-397. doi:10.1353/sls.2012.0005  "You Want What on Your Pizza!?": Videophone and Video-Relay Service as Potential Influences on the Lexical Standardization of American Sign Language Journal article Read article
Power, M. R., Power, D., & Horstmanshof, L. (2007). Journal of deaf studies and deaf education12(1), 80-92. Deaf people communicating via SMS, TTY, relay service, fax, and computers in Australia Journal article Read article
Quintos Pozos, D., Casanova de Canales, K., & Treviño, R. (2010).  Examining the challenges of trilingual (Spanish-English-ASL) VRS interpreting Presentation at the National Symposium on Video Interpreting, Washington, DC Read PowerPoint
Steinberg, J. S. (2003). The use of existing videoconferencing technology to deliver video remote interpreting services for deaf vocational rehabilitation clients Doctoral dissertation Read dissertation
Vasquez, J., Lopez, G. M., Mitchell, P. M., Rahimi, L. M., Wilcox, A. R., Rubin-Smith, J. E., & McGrath, M. E. (2011). Annals of Emergency Medicine58(4), S308-S309.  385 Emergency Department Staff Attitudes and Satisfaction With Live-Feed Video Interpreting for Limited English Proficient Patients: Pre-and Post-Training Journal article Read article
Task Force on Health Care Careers for the Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing Community. (2012), pp 4-5; 23-36   Final Report, Chapter 2: Ensuring High Quality and Innovative Access Services for D/HH Students and Professionals in Healthcare Fields Report


Author Title Link
Brunson, J. (2011). (M. Metzger & E. Fleetwood, Eds). Gallaudet University Press (1st ed., p. 216) Video Relay Service Interpreters: Intricacies of Sign Language Access Read a sample or order

Quintoz-Pozos, D., Casanova de Canales, K, & Treviño, R. (2010). In McKee, R.L. & David, J.E. (Eds.), Interpreting in multilingual, multicultural contexts (Vol. 7, Studies in Interpretation Series). Washington, D.C.: Gallaudet University Press. Trilingual Video Relay Service (VRS) Interpreting in the United States Read abstract or order

Case Law 

Year Location Description Link
2012 Trinity Health Systems, Iowa

Trinity Health Systems settled a case with the US Attorney General and Deaf litigants. The settlement outlines provision of on-site and VRI interpreting services.

Read settlement
2010  Inova Hospitals, Virginia This case against Inova sought to define when to use VRI and when to use on-site interpreters, as well as the importance of patient input into the decision. Read consent decree
2005 Laurel Regional Hospital, Maryland One of first widely-known cases. The case related to the exclusive use of "lip-reading" and (faulty) VRI technology for Deaf patients. The judge's analysis of similar cases, and who has standing to bring such lawsuits.

Read consent decree

Video presentations

Source Presenter Title Link
NADvlogs, 2015 Howard Rosenblum, NAD Executive Director Ask Howard Anything: Howard A. Rosenblum discusses Video Remote Interpreting (VRI) Watch
Gallaudet Dept. of Interpretation, Colloquium Lecture Series, March 2014 (Part I) Erica Alley, Gallaudet University Professional autonomy in video relay service interpreting: Perceptions of American Sign Language-English interpreters. Watch
Gallaudet Dept. of Interpretation, Colloquium Lecture Series, March 2014 (Part II) Annie Marks, Gallaudet University Investigating interpreter footing shifts in video relay interpreting.  Watch
GURIEC National Video Interpreting Symposium 2012* For all 2012 Video Symposium videos below, visit the GURIEC Presentation Archives page. You will find all videos and selected Powerpoints listed under GURIEC National Video Interpreting Symposium 2012. Visit archives
Jemina Napier, Macquarie University, Sydney A Study of Video Remote Signed Language Interpreter-mediated Interaction in Australia
Tracy Clark, California Court Interpreters Advisory Panel Case Studies in Legal Interpreting
Ed Aletto The State of Remote Interpreting in Oregon
Jeff Williamson, CI/CT Interpreter Practitioner Perspectives on Video Remote Interpreting
Roger Williams, South Carolina Dept. of Mental Health What if the TV really is talking to me? Video Remote Interpreting in Mental Health Settings
Carla M. Mathers, GURIEC, American Judicial Center Video Mediated Legal Proceedings: the past, the present and the future
Howard Rosenblum, National Association of the Deaf Consumers & Video Remote Interpreting
Alan Arbarnanell & 
Phillip Aiello, TCS Associates
Interpreter Agency Perspectives on Video Remote Interpreting Best Practices
Barbara Moser-Mercer, Universite de Geneve, Switzerland Spoken Language Interpreting and Use of Remote Interpreting
Ben Hall, University For Legal Interpreting, MARIE Center, University of Northern Colorado Ohio's Interpreting Initiative for State Courts
Shawn P. Huff, Birnbaum Interpreting Service Interpreter Practitioner Perspectives on Video Remote Interpreting
Vanessa Nino, MedStar Georgetown University Hospital  Interpreting via VRI in the Medical Setting
Jaclyn Evans, Inova Hospital  Inova Health System and VRI
Richard Laurion, CATIE Center, St. Catherine University Interpreter Practitioner Perspectives on Video Remote Interpreting,
Bambi Riehl, Pepnet 2  Postsecondary Video Remote Interpreting
Lisa Caringer, Southern Illinois University Postsecondary Video Remote Interpreting
National Council of Hispanic Deaf and Hard of Hearing (NCDHH) National Conference 2007 David Quintos Pozos and Kristie Casanova de Canales VRS-Spanish users Watch

 Video Interpreting in the News

Date Source Title Link
May 16. 2016 Salasky, P. Daily Press

Virginia Relay Services allows deaf and hearing to talk

May 14, 2016 Jost, T. Health Affairs Blog

HHS Issues Health Equity Final Rule

May 10, 2016 McCullen, K. The Bolton News (UK)

Deaf People Can Now Report Crimes Online Using Sign Language

May 5, 2016 North Carolina Health News

Deaf People Make their Voices Heard at the NC General Assembly 

April 19, 2016 First Direct (UK)

First Direct and HSBC launch sign language video service

Feb 24, 2016 Beaudette, T. CBCNews (Canada)

More sign-language interpreters needed as video-relay service launches in Winnipeg

Nov 25, 2015 Powell, S. News 8 WNTH

U.S. Attorney's Office settles Americans With Disabilities Act case with Webster Bank

July 20, 2015 Singer, P. USA Today, Democrat & Chronicle

Shumer to FCC: Protect Video Relay for Deaf People


March 23, 2015 Pacific Media Workers Guild

Victory for video interpreters: first contract

Jan 27, 2015 Stein, J. The National Law Review Key Issues Facing Places of Public Accommodation at the 25th Anniversary of the ADA Read
Oct 23, 2014 Simmons, C. New York Law Journal Finding Interpreters Poses Challenge for State Courts Read
Aug 30, 2014 Marbin Miller, C. The Miami Herald

Deaf Miami mom-to-be sues to have sign language in delivery room.

July 23, 2014 Belzin, K. Times Free Press, Tennessee

Family of deaf couple sues Erlanger over lack of interpreters

June 30, 2014 Greene, J. Crain's Detroit Business News New interpreter regulations seen as positive for deaf and hearing-impaired community. Read
May 17, 2013 Deaf Aotearoa Press Release. Scoop Independent News, New Zealand

Deaf Aotearoa Supports the Use of Video Remote Interpreting

April 20, 2012 Lester, G. National Association of Judiciary Interpreters and Translators Who's in control? A look at remote interpreting Read
April 14, 2012 Greiff, F. The Missourian Boone County court gets a new phone for translation Read

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