K-12 ASL Content Standards

The K-12 ASL Content Standards consist of five Anchor Standards that describe the general expectations that students learning ASL as a first language should meet across grades K-12 for college and career readiness.  

This page allows you to select specific standards and grades. Using this system, you can pick and choose which standards and grades you want to view at any time. You can also select standards that are unique to ASL. Those standards are symbolized with the use of the image of a hand. Symbol of colorful hand  

Click on the reset button to change the specific standards and/or grade levels that will appear below.

Also available for download:
K-12 ASL Content Standards Grade Level Cluster PDFs and Complete Standards PDF.

1. ASL Standards Categories

2. Grades

Select up to 5 grades

Viewing Standards for Literature

The following standards offer a focus for instruction each year and help ensure that students gain adequate exposure to a range of texts and tasks. Rigor is also infused through the requirement that students view increasingly complex texts through the grades.

Kindergartners Grade 1 Students Grade 2 Students Grade 3 Students Grade 4 Students Grade 5 Students Grade 6 Students Grade 7 Students Grade 8 Students Grade 9 Students Grade 10 Students Grade 11 Students Grade 12 Students
Key Ideas and Details
  1. With prompting and support, ask and answer questions about key details in a text.

  2. With prompting and support, retell familiar stories, including key details.

  3. With prompting and support, identify characters, settings, and major events in a story.

  1. Ask and answer questions about key details in a text.

    .

  2. Retell stories, including key details, and demonstrate understanding of their central message or lesson.

  3. Describe characters, settings, and major events in a story, using key details.

  1. Ask and answer such questions as who, what, where, when, why, and how to demonstrate understanding of key details in a text.

  2. Recount stories, including fables and folktales from diverse cultures, and determine their central message, lesson, or moral.

  3. Describe how characters in a story respond to major events and challenges.

  1. Ask and answer questions to demonstrate understanding of a text, referring explicitly to the text as the basis for the answers.

  2. Recount stories, including fables, folktales, and myths from diverse cultures; determine the central message, lesson, or moral and explain how it is conveyed through key details in the text.

  3. Describe characters in a story (e.g., their traits, motivations, or feelings) and explain how their actions contribute to the sequence of events.

  1. Refer to details and examples in a text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when drawing inferences from the text.

  2. Determine a theme of a story, drama, or poem from details in the text; summarize the text.

  3. Describe in depth a character, setting, or event in a story or drama, drawing on specific details in the text (e.g., a character's thoughts, signs, or actions).

  1. Quote accurately from a text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when drawing inferences from the text.

  2. Determine a theme of a story, drama, or poem from details in the text, including how characters in a story or drama respond to challenges or how the signer in a poem reflects upon a topic; summarize the text.

  3. Compare and contrast two or more characters, settings, or events in a story or drama, drawing on specific details in the text (e.g., how characters interact).

  1. Cite textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text.

  2. Determine a theme or central idea of a text and how it is conveyed through particular details; provide a summary of the text distinct from personal opinions or judgments.

  3. Describe how a particular story's or drama's plot unfolds in a series of episodes as well as how the characters respond or change as the plot moves toward a resolution.

  1. Cite several pieces of textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text.

  2. Analyze how particular elements of a story or drama interact (e.g., how setting shapes the characters or plot).

  3. Analyze how particular elements of a story or drama interact (e.g., how setting shapes the characters or plot).

  1. Cite the textual evidence that most strongly supports an analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text.

  2. Determine a theme or central idea of a text and analyze its development over the course of the text, including its relationship to the characters, setting, and plot; provide an objective summary of the text.

  3. Analyze how particular elements of dialogue or incidents in a story or drama propel the action, reveal aspects of a character, or provoke a decision.

  1. Cite strong and thorough textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text.

  2. Determine a theme or central idea of a text and analyze in detail its development over the course of the text, including how it emerges and is shaped and refined by specific details; provide an objective summary of the text.

  3. Analyze how complex characters (e.g., those with multiple or conflicting motivations) develop over the course of a text, interact with other characters, and advance the plot or develop the theme.

  1. Cite strong and thorough textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text.

  2. Determine a theme or central idea of a text and analyze in detail its development over the course of the text, including how it emerges and is shaped and refined by specific details; provide an objective summary of the text.

  3. Analyze how complex characters (e.g., those with multiple or conflicting motivations) develop over the course of a text, interact with other characters, and advance the plot or develop the theme.

  1. Cite strong and thorough textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text, including determining where the text leaves matters uncertain.

  2. Determine two or more themes or central ideas of a text and analyze their development over the course of the text, including how they interact and build on one another to produce a complex account; provide an objective summary of the text.

  3. Analyze the impact of the author's choices regarding how to develop and relate elements of a story or drama (e.g., where a story is set, how the action is ordered, how the characters are introduced and developed).

  1. Cite strong and thorough textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text, including determining where the text leaves matters uncertain.

  2. Determine two or more themes or central ideas of a text and analyze their development over the course of the text, including how they interact and build on one another to produce a complex account; provide an objective summary of the text.

  3. Analyze the impact of the author's choices regarding how to develop and relate elements of a story or drama (e.g., where a story is set, how the action is ordered, how the characters are introduced and developed).

Craft and Structure
  1. Ask and answer questions about unknown fingerspelled words or signs in a text.

  2. Recognize common types of text (e.g., storysigning, storytelling, poems.)

  3. With prompting and support, name the author and signer of a story and define the role of each in telling the story.

  1. Identify fingerspelled words, signs, and phrases, in stories or poems that suggest feelings or appeal to the senses.

  2. Explain major differences between text that tells stories and text that gives information, drawing on a wide viewing of a range of text types.

  3. Identify who is telling the story at various points in a text.

  1. Describe how fingerspelling words, signs, and phrases (e.g., patterned handshapes and/or signs, rhymes, repeated lines) supply rhythm and meaning in a story, poem, or song.

  2. Describe the overall structure of a story, including describing how the beginning introduces the story and the ending concludes the action.

  3. Acknowledge differences in the points of view of characters, including by signing in a different style for each character when signing dialogue (e.g., role shifting, eye gaze).

  1. Determine the meaning of fingerspelled words, signs, and phrases as they are used in a text, distinguishing literal from nonliteral language.

  2. Refer to parts of stories, dramas, and poems when signing about a text, using terms such as first part, beginning, chapter, scene, and stanza; describe how each successive part builds on earlier sections.

  3. Distinguish their own point of view from that of the narrator or those of the characters.

  1. Determine the meaning of signs and phrases as they are used in a text, including those that allude to significant characters found in mythology and other literature.

  2. Explain major differences between poems, drama, and prose, and refer to the structural
 elements of poems (e.g., handshapes, numbers, patterns, rhyme, rhythm) and drama (e.g., casts of characters, settings, dialogue, descriptions, stage directions) when signing about a text

  3. Compare and contrast the point of view from which different stories are narrated, including the difference between first- and third-person narrations.

  1. Determine the meaning of signs and phrases as they are used in a text, including figurative language such as metaphors, similes, and hyperboles.

  2. Explain how a series of chapters, scenes, or stanzas fits together to provide the overall structure of a particular story, drama, or poem.

  3. Describe how a narrator's point of view influences how events are described.

  1. Determine the meaning of sign and phrases as they are used in a text, including figurative and connotative meanings; analyze the impact of a specific sign choice on meaning and tone.

  2. Analyze how a particular sentence, chapter, scene, or stanza fits into the overall structure of a text and contributes to the development of the theme, setting, or plot.

  3. Explain how an author develops the point of view of the narrator or signer in a text.

  1. Determine the meaning of signs and phrases as they are used in a text, including figurative and connotative meanings; analyze the impact of rhymes and other repetitions of signs (e.g., repeated parameters) on a specific verse or stanza of a poem or section of a story or drama.

  2. Analyze how a drama's or poem's form or structure (e.g., soliloquy, free verse) contributes to its meaning.

  3. Analyze how an author develops and contrasts the points of view of different characters or narrators in a text.

  1. Determine the meaning of signs and phrases as they are used in a text, including figurative and connotative meanings; analyze the impact of specific sign choices on meaning and tone, including analogies or allusions to other texts.

  2. Compare and contrast the structure of two or more texts and analyze how the differing structure of each text contributes to its meaning and style.

  3. Analyze how differences in the points of view of the characters and the audience or viewer (e.g., created through the use of dramatic irony) create such effects as suspense or humor.

  1. Determine the meaning of signs and phrases as they are used in the text, including figurative and connotative meanings; analyze the cumulative impact of specific sign choices on meaning and tone (e.g., how the language evokes a sense of time and place; how it sets a formal or informal tone).

  2. Analyze how an author's choices concerning how to structure a text, order events within it (e.g., parallel plots), and manipulate time (e.g., pacing, flashbacks) create such effects as mystery, tension, or surprise.

  3. Analyze a particular point of view or cultural experience reflected in a work of literature from outside the United States, drawing on a wide viewing of world literature.

  1. Determine the meaning of signs and phrases as they are used in the text, including figurative and connotative meanings; analyze the cumulative impact of specific sign choices on meaning and tone (e.g., how the language evokes a sense of time and place; how it sets a formal or informal tone).

  2. Analyze how an author's choices concerning how to structure a text, order events within it (e.g., parallel plots), and manipulate time (e.g., pacing, flashbacks) create such effects as mystery, tension, or surprise.

  3. Analyze a particular point of view or cultural experience reflected in a work of literature from outside the United States, drawing on a wide viewing of world literature.

  1. Determine the meaning of signs and phrases as they are used in the text, including figurative and connotative meanings; analyze the impact of specific choices on meaning and tone, including signs with multiple meanings or language that is particularly fresh, engaging, or beautiful. (Include Graybill as well as other author.)

  2. Analyze how an author's choices concerning how to structure specific parts of a text (e.g., the choice of where to begin or end a story, the choice to provide a comedic or tragic resolution) contribute to its overall structure and meaning as well as its aesthetic impact.

  3. Analyze a case in which grasping a point of view requires distinguishing what is directly stated in a text from what is really meant (e.g., satire, sarcasm, irony, or understatement).

  1. Determine the meaning of signs and phrases as they are used in the text, including figurative and connotative meanings; analyze the impact of specific choices on meaning and tone, including signs with multiple meanings or language that is particularly fresh, engaging, or beautiful. (Include Graybill as well as other authors.)

  2. Analyze how an author'schoices concerning how to structure specific parts of a text (e.g., the choice of where to begin or end a story, the choice to provide a comedic or tragic resolution) contribute to its overall structure and meaning as well as its aesthetic impact.

  3. Analyze a case in which grasping a point of view requires distinguishing what is directly stated in a text from what is really meant (e.g., satire, sarcasm, irony, or understatement).

Integration of Knowledge and Ideas
  1. With prompting and support, describe the relationship between illustrations and the story in which they appear (e.g., what moment in a story an illustration depicts).

  2. (Not applicable to literature.)

  3. With prompting and support, compare and contrast the adventures and experiences of characters in familiar stories.

  1. Use illustrations and details in a story to describe its characters, setting, or events.

  2. (Not applicable to literature.)

  3. Compare and contrast the adventures and experiences of characters in stories.

  1. Use information gained from the illustrations and signs in text to demonstrate understanding of its characters, setting, or plot.

  2. (Not applicable to literature.)

  3. Compare and contrast two or more versions of the same story (e.g., Eyeth) by different authors and/or signers or from different cultures.

  1. Explain how specific aspects of a text's illustrations or visual backgrounds contribute to what is conveyed by the signs in a story (e.g., create mood, emphasize aspects of a character or setting).

  2. (Not applicable to literature.)

  3. Compare and contrast the themes, settings, and plots of stories created by the same author about the same or similar characters (e.g., in videos from a series).

  1. Make connections between the text of a story or drama and a visual or oral presentation of the text, identifying where each version reflects specific descriptions and directions in the text.

  2. (Not applicable to literature.)

  3. Compare and contrast the treatment of similar themes and topics (e.g., opposition of good and evil) and patterns of events (e.g., the quest) in
stories, myths, and traditional literature from different cultures.

  1. Analyze how visual and multimedia elements contribute to the meaning, tone, or beauty of a text (e.g., cinematography, multimedia presentation of fiction, folktale, myth, poem).

  2. (Not applicable to literature.)

  3. Compare and contrast stories in the same genre (e.g., mysteries and adventure stories) on their approaches to similar themes and topics.

  1. Compare and contrast the experience of viewing a story, drama, or poem to viewing a video or live version of the text, including contrasting what they "see" when they view the text to what they perceive when they attend or watch.

  2. (Not applicable to literature.)

  3. Compare and contrast texts in different forms or genres (e.g., stories and poems; historical novels and fantasy stories) in terms of their approaches to similar themes and topics.

  1. Compare and contrast a story, drama, or poem to its filmed, staged, or multimedia version, analyzing the effects of techniques unique to each medium (e.g., lighting, color, or camera focus and angles in a film).

  2. (Not applicable to literature.)

  3. Compare and contrast a fictional portrayal of a time, place, or character and a historical account of the same period as a means of understanding how authors of fiction use or alter history.

  1. Analyze the extent to which a filmed or live production of a story or drama stays faithful to or departs from the text or script, evaluating the choices made by the director or actors.

  2. (Not applicable to literature.)

  3. Analyze how a modern work of fiction draws on themes, patterns of events, or character types from myths, traditional stories, or religious works describing how the material is rendered new.

  1. Analyze the representation of a subject or a key scene in two different artistic mediums, including what is emphasized or absent in each treatment (e.g., Susan Dupor's "Family Dog" and Clayton Valli's "Sit and Smile" by Darla Thompson)

  2. (Not applicable to literature.)

  3. Analyze how an author draws on and transforms source material in a specific work (e.g., how Lindsay Darnall, Jr. treats a theme or topic from the Civil War or how a later author draws on a poem by Clayton Valli).

  1. Analyze the representation of a subject or a key scene in two different artistic mediums, including what is emphasized or absent in each treatment (e.g., Susan Dupor's "Family Dog" and Clayton Valli's "Sit and Smile" by Darla Thompson)

  2. (Not applicable to literature.)

  3. Analyze how an author draws on and transforms source material in a specific work (e.g., how Lindsay Darnall, Jr. treats a theme or topic from the Civil War or how a later author draws on a poem by Clayton Valli).

  1. Analyze multiple interpretations of a story, drama, or poem (e.g., recorded or live production of a play or recorded novel or poetry), evaluating how each version interprets the source text.

  2. (Not applicable to literature.)

  3. Demonstrate knowledge of old literature from the early days of foundational work in literature through published texts.

  1. Analyze multiple interpretations of a story, drama, or poem (e.g., recorded or live production of a play or recorded novel or poetry), evaluating how each version interprets the source text.

  2. (Not applicable to literature.)

  3. Demonstrate knowledge of old literature from the early days of foundational work in literature through published texts.

Range of Viewing and Level of Text Complexity
  1. Actively engage in group viewing activities with purpose and understanding.

  1. With prompting and support, view prose and poetry of appropriate complexity for grade 1.

  1. By the end of the year, view and comprehend literature, including stories and poetry, in the grades 2-3 text complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range.

  1. By the end of the year, view and comprehend literature, including stories, dramas, and poetry, at the high end of the grades 2-3 text complexity band independently and proficiently.

  1. By the end of the year, view and comprehend literature, including stories, dramas, and poetry, in 
the grades 4-5 text complexity band proficiently,
 with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range.

  1. By the end of the year, view and comprehend literature, including stories, dramas, and poetry, at the high end of the grades 4-5 text complexity band independently and proficiently.

  1. By the end of the year, view and comprehend literature, including stories, dramas, and poems, in the grades 6-8 text complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range.

  1. By the end of the year, view and comprehend literature, including stories, dramas, and poems, in the grades 6-8 text complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range.

  1. By the end of the year, view and comprehend literature, including stories, dramas, and poems, at the high end of grades 6-8 text complexity band independently and proficiently.

  1. By the end of grade 9, view and comprehend literature, including stories, dramas, and poems, in the grades 9-10 text complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range.

  1. By the end of grade 10, view and comprehend literature, including stories, dramas, and poems, at the high end of the grades 9-10 text complexity band independently and proficiently.

  1. By the end of grade 11, view and comprehend literature, including stories, dramas, and poems, in the
    grades 11-CCR text complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the
    range.

  1. By the end of grade 12, view and comprehend literature, including stories, dramas, and poems, at the high end of the grades 11-CCR text complexity band independently and proficiently.

Viewing Standards for Informational Text

The following standards offer a focus for instruction each year and help ensure that students explore age-appropriate expository works in ASL, developing an increasingly sophisticated understanding of the information presented through the grades. Students' engagement with ASL texts require that they analyze content, organization, effectiveness, and significance of the ASL texts.

Kindergartners Grade 1 Students Grade 2 Students Grade 3 Students Grade 4 Students Grade 5 Students Grade 6 Students Grade 7 Students Grade 8 Students Grade 9 Students Grade 10 Students Grade 11 Students Grade 12 Students
Key Ideas and Details
  1. With prompting and support, ask and answer questions about key details.

  2. With prompting and support, identify the main topic and retell key details of a text.

  3. With prompting and support, describe the connection between two individuals, events, ideas, or pieces of information in a text.

  1. Ask and answer questions about key details in a text.

  2. Identify the main topic and retell key details of a text.

  3. Describe the connection between two individuals, events, ideas, or pieces of information in a text.

  1. Ask and answer such questions as who, what, where, when, why, and how to demonstrate understanding of key details in a text.

  2. Identify the main topic of a multi-paragraph text as well as the focus of specific paragraphs within the text.

  3. Describe the connection between a series of historical events, scientific ideas or concepts, or steps in technical procedures in a text.

  1. Ask and answer questions to demonstrate understanding of a text, referring explicitly to the text as the basis for the answers.

  2. Determine the main idea of a text; recount the key details and explain how they support the main idea.

  3. Describe the relationship between a series of historical events, scientific ideas or concepts, or steps in technical procedures in a text, using language that pertains to time, sequence, and cause/effect.

  1. Refer to details and examples in a text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when drawing inferences from the text.

  2. Determine the main idea of a text and explain how it is supported by key details; summarize the text.

  3. Explain events, procedures, ideas, or concepts in a historical, scientific, or technical text, including what happened and why, based on specific information in the text.

  1. Quote accurately from a text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when drawing inferences from the text.

  2. Determine two or more main ideas of a text and explain how they are supported by key details; summarize the text.

  3. Explain the relationships or interactions between two or more individuals, events, ideas, or concepts in a historical, scientific, or technical text based on specific information in the text.

  1. Cite textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text.

  2. Determine a central idea of a text and how it is conveyed through particular details; provide a summary of the text distinct from personal opinions or judgments.

  3. Analyze in detail how a key individual, event, or idea is introduced, illustrated, and elaborated in a text (e.g., through examples or anecdotes).

  1. Cite several pieces of textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text.

  2. Determine two or more central ideas in a text and analyze their development over the course of the text; provide an objective summary of the text.

  3. Analyze the interactions between individuals, events, and ideas in a text (e.g., how ideas influence individuals or events, or how individuals influence ideas or events).

  1. Cite the textual evidence that most strongly supports an analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text.

  2. Determine a central idea of a text and analyze its development over the course of the text, including its relationship to supporting ideas; provide an objective summary of the text.

  3. Analyze how a text makes connections among and distinctions between individuals, ideas, or events (e.g., through comparisons, analogies, or categories).

  1. Cite strong and thorough textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text.

  2. Determine a central idea of a text and analyze its development over the course of the text, including how it emerges and is shaped and refined by specific details; provide an objective summary of the text.

  3. Analyze how the author unfolds an analysis or series of ideas or events, including the order in which the points are made, how they are introduced and developed, and the connections that are drawn between them.

  1. Cite strong and thorough textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text.

  2. Determine a central idea of a text and analyze its development over the course of the text, including how it emerges and is shaped and refined by specific details; provide an objective summary of the text.

  3. Analyze how the author unfolds an analysis or series of ideas or events, including the order in which the points are made, how they are introduced and developed, and the connections that are drawn between them.

  1. Cite strong and thorough textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text, including determining where the text leaves matters uncertain.

  2. Determine two or more central ideas of a text and analyze their development over the course of the text, including how they interact and build on one another to provide a complex analysis; provide an objective summary of the text.

  3. Analyze a complex set of ideas or sequence of events and explain how specific individuals, ideas, or events interact and develop over the course of the text.

  1. Cite strong and thorough textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text, including determining where the text leaves matters uncertain.

  2. Determine two or more central ideas of a text and analyze their development over the course of the text, including how they interact and build on one another to provide a complex analysis; provide an objective summary of the text.

  3. Analyze a complex set of ideas or sequence of events and explain how specific individuals, ideas, or events interact and develop over the course of the text.

Craft and Structure
  1. With prompting and support, ask and answer questions about unknown signs and fingerspelling words.

  2. Identify the beginning, body, and ending of a text.

  3. Name the author and signer of a text and define the role of each in presenting the ideas or information.

  1. Ask and answer questions to help determine or clarify the meaning of fingerspelled words, signs, and phrases in a text.

  2. Know and use various text features (e.g., visual transition effects) and text structures (e.g., sequence and transition phrases) to locate key facts or information in a text.

  3. Distinguish between information provided by pictures or other illustrations and information provided by the fingerspelled signs and signs in a text.

  1. Determine the meaning of fingerspelled words, signs, and phrases in a text relevant to a grade 2 topic or subject area.

  2. Know and use various text features (e.g., visual transition effects) and text structures (e.g., sequence and transition phrases) to locate key facts or information in a text efficiently.

  3. Identify the main purpose of a text, including what the author wants to answer, explain, or describe.

  1. Determine the meaning of general academic and domain-specific words or phrases in a text relevant to a grade 3 topic or subject area.

  2. Use text features and search tools (e.g., playback buttons, timestamps) to locate information relevant to a given topic efficiently.

  3. Distinguish their own point of view from that of the author of a text.

  1. Determine the meaning of general academic and domain-specific words and phrases in a text relevant to a grade 4 topic or subject area.

  2. Describe the overall structure (e.g., chronology, comparison, cause/effect, problem/solution) of events, ideas, concepts, or information in a text or part of a text.

  3. Compare and contrast a firsthand and secondhand account of the same event or topic; describe the differences in focus and the information provided.

  1. Determine the meaning of general academic and domain-specific words or phrases in a text relevant to a grade 5 topic or subject area.

  2. Compare and contrast the overall structure (e.g., chronology, comparison, cause/effect, problem/solution) of events, ideas, concepts, or information in two or more texts.

  3. Analyze multiple accounts of the same event or topic, noting important similarities and differences in the point of view they represent.

  1. Determine the meaning of signs and phrases as they are used in a text, including figurative, connotative, and technical meanings.

  2. Analyze how a particular sentence, paragraph, chapter, or section fits into the overall structure of a text and contributes to the development of the ideas.

  3. Determine an author's point of view or purpose in a text and explain how it is conveyed in the text.

  1. Determine the meaning of signs and phrases as they are used in a text, including figurative, connotative, and technical meanings; analyze the impact of a specific sign choice on meaning and tone.

  2. Analyze the structure an author uses to organize a text, including how the major sections contribute to the whole and to the development of the ideas.

  3. Determine an author's point of view or purpose in a text and analyze how the author distinguishes his or her position from that of others.

  1. Determine the meaning of signs and phrases as they are used in a text, including figurative, connotative, and technical meanings; analyze the impact of specific sign choices on meaning and tone, including analogies or allusions to other texts.

  2. Analyze in detail the structure of a specific paragraph in a text, including the role of particular sentences in developing and refining a key concept.

  3. Determine an author's point of view or purpose in a text and analyze how the author acknowledges and responds to conflicting evidence or viewpoints.

  1. Determine the meaning of signs and phrases as they are used in a text, including figurative, connotative, and technical meanings; analyze the cumulative impact of specific sign choices on meaning and tone.

  2. Analyze in detail how an author's ideas or claims are developed and refined by particular sentences, paragraphs, or larger portions of a text (e.g., a section or chapter).

  3. Determine an author's point of view or purpose in a text and analyze how an author uses rhetoric to advance that point of view or purpose.

  1. Determine the meaning of signs and phrases as they are used in a text, including figurative, connotative, and technical meanings; analyze the cumulative impact of specific sign choices on meaning and tone.

  2. Analyze in detail how an author's ideas or claims are developed and refined by particular sentences, paragraphs, or larger portions of a text (e.g., a section or chapter).

  3. Determine an author's point of view or purpose in a text and analyze how an author uses rhetoric to advance that point of view or purpose.

  1. Determine the meaning of signs and phrases as they are used in a text, including figurative, connotative, and technical meanings; analyze how an author uses and refines the meaning of a key term or terms over the course of a text.

  2. Analyze and evaluate the effectiveness of the structure an author uses in his or her exposition or argument, including whether the structure makes points clear, convincing, and engaging.

  3. Determine an author's point of view or purpose in a text in which the rhetoric is particularly effective, analyzing how style and content contribute to the power, persuasiveness, or beauty of the text.

  1. Determine the meaning of signs and phrases as they are used in a text, including figurative, connotative, and technical meanings; analyze how an author uses and refines the meaning of a key term or terms over the course of a text.

  2. Analyze and evaluate the effectiveness of the structure an author uses in his or her exposition or argument, including whether the structure makes points clear, convincing, and engaging.

  3. Determine an author's point of view or purpose in a text in which the rhetoric is particularly effective, analyzing how style and content contribute to the power, persuasiveness, or beauty of the text.

Integration of Knowledge and Ideas
  1. With prompting and support, describe the relationship between illustrations and the text in which they appear (e.g., what person, place, thing, or idea an illustration depicts in the text).

  2. With prompting and support, identify the reasons a signer gives to support points in a text.

  3. With prompting and support, identify basic similarities and differences between two texts on the same topic (e.g., in illustrations, descriptions, or procedures).

  1. Use the illustrations and details in a text to describe its key ideas.

  2. Identify the reasons an author gives to support points in a text.

  3. Identify basic similarities in and differences between two texts on the same topic (e.g., in illustrations, descriptions, or procedures).

  1. Explain how specific images (e.g., a diagram showing how a machine works) contribute to and clarify a text.

  2. Describe how reasons support specific points the author makes in a text.

  3. Compare and contrast the most important points presented by two texts on the same topic.

  1. Use information gained from illustrations (e.g., maps, photographs) and the signs in a text to demonstrate understanding of the text (e.g., where, when, why, and how key events occur).

  2. Describe the logical connection between particular sentences and paragraphs in a text (e.g., comparison, cause/effect, first/second/third in a sequence).

  3. Compare and contrast the most important points and key details presented in two texts on the same topic.

  1. Interpret information presented live or published that may include quantitative or visual information (e.g., in charts, graphs, diagrams, time lines, animations, or interactive elements on web pages) and explain how the information contributes to an understanding of the text in which it appears.

  2. Explain how an author uses reasons and evidence to support particular points in a text.

  3. Integrate information from two texts on the same topic in order to narrate about the subject knowledgeably.

  1. Draw on information from multiple print or digital sources, demonstrating the ability to locate
an answer to a question quickly or to solve a problem efficiently.

  2. Explain how an author uses reasons and evidence to support particular points in a text, identifying which reasons and evidence support which point(s).

  3. Integrate information from several texts on the same topic in order to narrate about the subject knowledgeably.

  1. Integrate information presented in different media or formats (e.g., visually, quantitatively) as well as in signs to develop a coherent understanding of a topic or issue.

  2. Trace and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, distinguishing claims that are supported by reasons and evidence from claims that are not.

  3. Compare and contrast one author's presentation of events with that of another (e.g., a memoir signed by and a biography on the same person).

  1. Compare and contrast a text to a video or multimedia version of the text, analyzing each medium's portrayal of the subject (e.g., how the delivery of a presentation affects the impact of sign choices).

  2. Trace and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, assessing whether the reasoning is solid and the evidence is relevant and sufficient to support the claims.

  3. Analyze how two or more authors signing about the same topic shape their presentations of key information by emphasizing different evidence or advancing different interpretations of facts.

  1. Evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of using different mediums (e.g., published> text or digital sources, video, multimedia) to present a particular topic or idea.

  2. Delineate and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, assessing whether the reasoning is solid and the evidence is relevant and sufficient; recognize when irrelevant evidence is introduced.

  3. Analyze a case in which two or more texts provide conflicting information on the same topic and identify where the texts disagree on matters of fact or interpretation.

  1. Analyze various accounts of a subject told in different mediums (e.g., a person's life story in both published text and multimedia), determining which details are emphasized in each account.

  2. Delineate and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, assessing whether the reasoning is valid and the evidence is relevant and sufficient; identify false statements and fallacious reasoning.

  3. Analyze texts (e.g., schools for the deaf video and Gallaudet's video archives) of historical and literary significance for their themes, concepts, and purposes.

  1. Analyze various accounts of a subject told in different mediums (e.g., a person's life story in both published text and multimedia), determining which details are emphasized in each account.

  2. Delineate and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, assessing whether the reasoning is valid and the evidence is relevant and sufficient; identify false statements and fallacious reasoning.

  3. Analyze texts (e.g., schools for the deaf video and Gallaudet's video archives) of historical and literary significance for their themes, concepts, and purposes.

  1. Integrate and evaluate multiple sources of information presented in different media or formats (e.g., visually, quantitatively) as well as in signs in order to address a question or solve a problem.

  2. Delineate and evaluate the reasoning in seminal texts about the Deaf literature experience, including the premises, purposes, and arguments in works of advocacy (e.g., Tedx talks on audism, linguisicism, advocacy).

  3. Analyze seminal text of historical and literary significance (e.g., "The Preservation of the Sign Language" by George Veditz), including how they address related themes and concepts.

  1. Integrate and evaluate multiple sources of information presented in different media or formats (e.g., visually, quantitatively) as well as in signs in order to address a question or solve a problem.

  2. Delineate and evaluate the reasoning in seminal texts about the Deaf experience, including the premises, purposes, and arguments in works of advocacy (e.g., Tedx talks on audism, linguisicism, advocacy).

  3. Analyze seminal text of historical and literary significance (e.g., "The Preservation of the Sign Language" by George Veditz), including how they address related themes and concepts.

Range of Viewing and Level of Text Complexity
  1. Actively engage in group viewing activities with purpose and understanding.

  1. With prompting and support, view informational texts appropriately complex for grade 1.

  1. By the end of the year, view and comprehend informational texts, including history/social studies, science, and technical texts, in the grades 2-3 text complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range.

  1. By the end of the year, view and comprehend informational texts, including history/social studies, science, and technical texts, at the high end of the grades 2-3 text complexity band independently and proficiently.

  1. By the end of the year, view and comprehend informational texts, including history/social studies, science, and technical texts, at the high end of the grades 4-5 text complexity band, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range.

  1. By the end of the year, view and comprehend informational texts, including history/social studies, science, and technical texts, at the high end of the grades 4-5 text complexity band independently and proficiently.

  1. By the end of the year, view and comprehend literary nonfiction in the grades 6-8 text complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range.

  1. By the end of the year, view and comprehend literary nonfiction in the grades 6-8 text complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range.

  1. By the end of the year, view and comprehend literary nonfiction at the high end of the grades 6-8 text complexity band independently and proficiently.

  1. By the end of grade 9, view and comprehend literary nonfiction in the grades 9-10 text complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range.

  1. By the end of grade 10, view and comprehend literary nonfiction at the high end of the grades 9-10 text complexity band independently and proficiently.

  1. By the end of grade 11, view and comprehend literary nonfiction in the grades 11-CCR text
    complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range.

  1. By the end of grade 12, view and comprehend literary nonfiction at the high end of the grades 11-CCR text complexity band independently and proficiently.

Viewing Standards for Foundational Skills

The following standards are directed toward fostering students' understanding and working knowledge of concepts of the five parameters (handshape, movement, non-manual markers, location, orientation), fingerspelling and basic structure of American Sign Language. They are basic components of linguistic understanding that all students need to comprehend academic texts in ASL. These foundational skills are not an end in and of themselves; rather, they are necessary and important components of an effective, comprehensive viewing program designed to develop proficient viewers with the capacity to comprehend texts across a range of types and disciplines. Instruction should be differentiated: good viewers will need much less practice with these concepts than struggling viewers will. The point is to teach students what they need to learn and not what they already know-to discern when particular children or activities warrant more or less attention.

Kindergartners Grade 1 Students Grade 2 Students Grade 3 Students Grade 4 Students Grade 5 Students Grade 6 Students Grade 7 Students Grade 8 Students Grade 9 Students Grade 10 Students Grade 11 Students Grade 12 Students
Sign Concepts
  1. Demonstrate understanding of the organization and basic features of sign.

    1. Recognize the structure of the signing space (i.e., head, trunk, arm, and hand).
    2. Recognize that signs are represented by a combination of parameters.
    3. Recognize that signs produce meaning.
    4. Recognize that non-manual markers have meanings.
    5. Recognize that specific classifiers have specific meanings.

  1. Demonstrate understanding of the organization and basic features of sign

    1. Recognize that signs are separated by movement and hold patterns.
    2. Use the distinguishing features of a sentence (e.g., eye gaze, movement in starting a sign, body tilt, ending movement or hold).

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Phonological Awareness
  1. Demonstrate understanding of signs and parameters (phonemes).

    1. Recognize that signs are separated by parameters.
    2. Identify the phonological parameters in ASL.
    3. Count, produce, blend, and segment parameters in signs.
    4. Manipulate parameters to make new meaning.
    5. Recognize and produce rhyming signs.

  1. Demonstrate understanding of signs and parameters (phonemes).

    1. Distinguish the five parameters.
    2. Distinguish between handshapes and the manual alphabet.
    3. Isolate a single parameter while modifying other parameters.
    4. Segment signed words into their complete set of parameters.
    5. Produce phonological groupings (sign families and patterns, e.g. positions of power at shoulder area: BOSS, CAPTAIN, COLONEL; feelings at chest area: HAPPY, ANGRY, THRILLED).
    6. Demonstrate correct principles of numbering systems (i.e., cardinal numbers and ordinal numbers).
    7. Decode meaning of signs using phonological awareness (e.g., PRINCE, KING).

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Morphological Awareness
  1. Know and apply grade-level sign analysis skills in decoding signs.

    1. Recognize common high-frequency signs (e.g., LIKE, WANT, WHY).
    2. Recognize that specific classifiers represent specific nouns (e.g., vehicle, people, structures, elements).
    3. Recognize signs incorporate agentive suffix (e.g., TEACHER = TEACH+PERSON, PILOT = PLANE+PERSON).
    4. Recognize signs with inflections (e.g., comparatives, superlatives, and plural; SIT-FOR-A-LONG-TIME, SHE-GIVES-HIM).
    5. Identify meaning of numerically incorporated signs (e.g., 1-YEAR-OLD vs. ONE-O'CLOCK = TIME+ONE).
    6. Recognize non-manual markers of signs inform their meanings (e.g., PUZZLED)
  1. Know and apply grade-level sign analysis skills in decoding signs.

    1. Recognize the derivational changes in structure of signs that influence their meanings (e.g., noun and verb pairs, affixes , and sequences).
    2. Recognize the inflective changes in structure of signs that influence their meanings (e.g., comparatives, superlatives, plurality, temporal verbs: SIT-FOR-A-LONG-TIME, changes in subject and object: GIVE -BOOK, GIVE-CUP).
    3. Recognize that movements and hold patterns change the meaning of a verb.
    4. Recognize directionality changes in the meaning of a verb.
    5. Use classifiers to show location of one object or person in relation to others (e.g., referents and prepositions).
    6. Recognize the inflective changes in classifiers that influence their meanings (e.g., CL: 3-bumpy road).
    7. Decode non-manual markers of new signs to determine their meanings (e.g., using BPCL: 2 and expression of exhaustion to decode EXHAUSTED).
  1. Know and apply grade-level sign analysis skills in decoding signs.

    1. Recognize the derivatives of blended signs inform the meaning of blended signs (e.g., KNOW+THAT = KNOW-THAT).
    2. Recognize spatial positioning of signs inform their meanings (e.g., HOT-group vs. COLD-group and their referents).
  1. Know and apply grade-level sign analysis skills in decoding signs.

    1. Use combined knowledge of all parameters and morphology (e.g., roots, affixes, and depiction) to accurately decode unfamiliar signs and phrases in context and out of context.

  1. Know and apply grade-level sign analysis skills in decoding signs.

    1. Use combined knowledge of all parameters and morphology (e.g., roots, affixes, and depiction) to accurately decode unfamiliar signs and phrases in context and out of context.
  1. Know and apply grade-level sign analysis skills in decoding signs.

    1. Use combined knowledge of all parameters and morphology (e.g., roots, affixes, and depiction) to accurately decode unfamiliar signs and phrases in context and out of context.

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Fluency
  1. View and sign on-level texts with purpose and understanding.

  1. View and sign on-level texts with sufficient accuracy and fluency to support comprehension.

    1. View on-level text with purpose and understanding.
    2. View on-level text with accuracy, appropriate rate, and expression on successive viewings for both published and live texts.
    3. Use context to confirm or self-correct sign recognition and understanding, re-viewing as necessary.
  1. View and sign on-level texts with sufficient accuracy and fluency to support comprehension.

    1. View on-level text with purpose and understanding.
    2. View on-level text with accuracy, appropriate rate, and expression on successive viewings for both published and live texts.
    3. Use context to confirm or self-correct sign recognition and understanding, re-viewing as necessary.
  1. View and sign on-level texts with sufficient accuracy and fluency to support comprehension.

    1. View on-level text with purpose and understanding.
    2. View and recite on-level text prose and poetry with accuracy, appropriate rate, and expression on successive viewings for both published and live texts.
    3. Use context to confirm or self-correct sign recognition and understanding, reviewing as necessary.

  1. View and sign on-level texts with sufficient accuracy and fluency to support comprehension.

    1. View on-level text with purpose and understanding.
    2. View and recite on-level text prose and poetry with accuracy, appropriate rate, and expression on successive viewings for both published and live texts.
    3. Use context to confirm or self-correct sign recognition and understanding, re-viewing as necessary.

  1. View and sign on-level texts with sufficient accuracy and fluency to support comprehension.

    1. View on-level text with purpose and understanding.
    2. View and recite on-level text prose and poetry with accuracy, appropriate rate, and expression on successive viewings for both published and live texts.
    3. Use context to confirm or self-correct sign recognition and understanding, re-viewing as necessary.

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Standards for Published Signing

The following standards define what students should understand and be able to do by the end of each grade. The College and Career Readiness Anchor Standards and the Grade-level Standards are necessary complements-the former providing broad standards, the latter providing additional specificity.

Kindergartners Grade 1 Students Grade 2 Students Grade 3 Students Grade 4 Students Grade 5 Students Grade 6 Students Grade 7 Students Grade 8 Students Grade 9 Students Grade 10 Students Grade 11 Students Grade 12 Students
Text Types and Purposes
  1. Use a combination of drawing, dictating, and signing to compose opinion pieces in which they tell a viewer the topic or the name of the text they are signing about and state an opinion or preference about the topic or text (e.g., My favorite text is ...).

  2. Use a combination of drawing, dictating, and signing to compose informative/explanatory texts in which they name what they are signing about and supply some information about the topic.

  3. Use a combination of drawing, dictating, and signing to compose a visual-story map narrating a single event or several loosely linked events, tell about the events in the order in which they occurred, and provide a reaction to what happened.

  1. Sign opinion pieces in which they introduce the topic or name the text they are signing about, state an opinion, supply a reason for the opinion, and provide some sense of closure.

  2. Sign informative/explanatory texts in which they name a topic, supply some facts about the topic, and provide some sense of closure.

  3. Sign narratives in which they recount two or more appropriately sequenced events, include some details regarding what happened, use temporal signs to signal event order, and provide some sense of closure.

  1. Sign opinion pieces in which they introduce the topic or name the text they are signing about, state an opinion, supply reasons for the opinion, use linking signs (e.g., transitional signs: PLUS, WHY-Q) to connect opinion and reasons, and provide a concluding statement or section.

  2. Sign informative/explanatory texts in which they introduce a topic, use facts and definitions to develop points, and provide a concluding statement or section.

  3. Sign narratives in which they recount a well-elaborated event or short sequence of events, including details to describe actions, thoughts and feelings, use temporal signs, inflections, and phrases to signal event order, and provide a sense of closure.

  1. Sign opinion pieces on topics or texts, supporting a point of view with reasons.

    1. Introduce the topic or text they are signing about, state an opinion, and create an organizational structure that lists reasons.
    2. Provide reasons that support the opinion.
    3. Use linking signs and phrases (e.g., CL: 3-LIST, FOR-FOR-Q, spatial referents) to connect opinion and reasons.
    4. Provide a concluding statement or section.
  2. Sign informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas and information clearly.

    1. Introduce a topic and group-related information together; include illustrations and other images when useful to aiding comprehension.
    2. Develop the topic with facts, definitions, and details.
    3. Use linking signs (e.g., SAME, SECOND, UNDERSTAND++) to connect ideas within categories of information.
    4. Provide a concluding statement or section.
  3. Sign narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, descriptive details, and clear event sequences.

    1. Establish a situation and introduce a narrator and/or characters; organize an event sequence that unfolds naturally.
    2. Use dialogue and descriptions of actions, thoughts, and feelings to develop experiences and events or show the response of characters to situations.
    3. Use temporal signs, inflections, and phrases to signal event order.
    4. Provide a sense of closure.
  1. Sign opinion pieces on topics or texts, supporting a point of view with reasons and information.

    1. Introduce a topic or text clearly, state an opinion, and create an organizational structure in which related ideas are grouped to support the signer's purpose.
    2. Provide reasons that are supported by facts and details.
    3. Link opinion and reasons using signs and phrases (e.g., FOR EXAMPLE, RH-Q HOW, ALSO, IDEA-SAME, ADD).
    4. Provide a concluding statement or section related to the opinion presented.
  2. Sign informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas and information clearly.

    1. Introduce a topic clearly and group related information in paragraphs and sections; include formatting (e.g., video transitions), illustrations, and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension.
    2. Develop the topic with facts, definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples related to the topic.
    3. Link ideas within categories of information using signs and phrases (e.g., OTHER, ALSO, RH-Q WHY, list referents).
    4. Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to inform about or explain the topic.
    5. Provide a concluding statement or section related to the information or explanation presented.
  3. Sign narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, descriptive details, and clear event sequences.

    1. Orient the viewer by establishing a situation and introducing a narrator and/or characters; organize an event sequence that unfolds naturally.
    2. Use dialogue (role-shifting) and description to develop experiences and events or show the responses of characters to situations.
    3. Use a variety of transitional signs and phrases to manage the sequence of events.
    4. Use concrete signs and phrases and sensory details to convey experiences and events precisely.
    5. Provide a conclusion that follows from the narrated experiences or events.
  1. Sign opinion pieces on topics or texts, supporting a point of view with reasons and information.

    1. Introduce a topic or text clearly, state an opinion, and create an organizational structure in which ideas are logically grouped to support the signer's purpose.
    2. Provide logically ordered reasons that are supported by facts and details.
    3. Link opinion and reasons using signs, phrases, and clauses (e.g., THEREFORE, HAPPEN, SPECIFICALLY).
    4. Provide a concluding statement or section related to the opinion presented.
  2. Sign informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas and information clearly.

    1. Introduce a topic clearly, provide a general observation and focus, and group related information logically; include formatting (e.g., video transition), illustrations, and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension.
    2. Develop the topic with facts, definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples related to the topic.
    3. Link ideas within and across categories of information using signs, phrases, and clauses (e.g., POINT, use contrastive structure, conditionals).
    4. Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to inform about or explain the topic.
    5. Provide a concluding statement or section related to the information or explanation presented.
  3. Sign narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, descriptive details, and clear event sequences.

    1. Orient the viewer by establishing a situation and introducing a narrator and/or characters; organize an event sequence that unfolds naturally.
    2. Use narrative techniques, such as dialogue (role-shifting), description, and pacing, to develop experiences and events or show the responses of characters to situations
    3. Use a variety of transitional signs, phrases, and clauses to manage the sequence of events.
    4. Use concrete signs and phrases and sensory details to convey experiences and events precisely.
    5. Provide a conclusion that follows from the narrated experiences or events.
  1. Sign arguments to support claims with clear reasons and relevant evidence.

    1. Introduce claim(s) and organize the reasons and evidence clearly.
    2. Support claim(s) with clear reasons and relevant evidence, using credible sources and demonstrating an understanding of the topic or text.
    3. Use words, phrases, depiction, and clauses (e.g., RELATE; PARALLEL-TO; ALIKE; SAME+IDEA) to clarify the relationships among claim(s) and reasons.
    4. Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from the argument presented.
    5. Establish and maintain a formal style.
  2. Sign informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas, concepts, and information through the selection, organization, and analysis of relevant content.

    1. Introduce a topic; organize ideas, concepts, and information, using strategies such as definition, classification, comparison/contrast, and cause/effect; include formatting (e.g., headings), graphics (e.g., charts, tables), and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension.
    2. Develop the topic with relevant facts, definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples.
    3. Use appropriate transition to clarify the relationships among ideas and concepts.
    4. Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to inform about or explain the topic.
    5. Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from the information or explanation presented.
    6. Establish and maintain a formal style.
  3. Sign narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, relevant descriptive details, and well-structured event sequences.

    1. Engage and orient the viewer by establishing a context and introducing a narrator and/or characters; organize an event sequence that unfolds naturally and logically.
    2. Use narrative techniques, such as dialogue, pacing, and description, to develop experiences, events, and/or characters.
    3. Use a variety of transition signs, phrases, and clauses to convey sequence and signal shifts from one time frame or setting to another.
    4. Use precise signs, depiction, and phrases, relevant descriptive details, and sensory language to convey experiences and events.
    5. Provide a conclusion that follows from the narrated experiences or events.
  1. Sign arguments to support claims with clear reasons and relevant evidence.

    1. Introduce claim(s), acknowledge alternate or opposing claims, and organize the reasons and evidence logically.
    2. Support claim(s) with logical reasoning and relevant evidence, using accurate, credible sources and demonstrating an understanding of the topic or text.
    3. Use words, phrases, depiction, and clauses to create cohesion and clarify the relationships among claim(s), reasons, and evidence.
    4. Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the argument presented.
    5. Establish and maintain a formal style.
  2. Sign informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas, concepts, and information through the selection, organization, and analysis of relevant content.

    1. Introduce a topic clearly, previewing what is to follow; organize ideas, concepts, and information, using strategies such as definition, classification, comparison/contrast, and cause/effect; include formatting (e.g., headings), graphics (e.g., charts, tables), and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension.
    2. Develop the topic with relevant facts, definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples.
    3. Use appropriate transition to create cohesion and clarify the relationships among ideas and concepts.
    4. Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to inform about or explain the topic.
    5. Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the information or explanation presented.
    6. Establish and maintain a formal style.
  3. Sign narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, relevant descriptive details, and well-structured event sequences.

    1. Engage and orient the viewer by establishing a context and point of view and introducing a narrator and/or characters; organize an event sequence that unfolds naturally and logically.
    2. Use narrative techniques, such as dialogue, pacing, and description, to develop experiences, events, and/or characters.
    3. Use a variety of transition signs, phrases, and clauses to convey sequence and signal shifts from one time frame or setting to another.
    4. Use precise signs, depiction, and phrases, relevant descriptive details, and sensory language to capture the action and convey experiences and events.
    5. Provide a conclusion that follows from and reflects on the narrated experiences or events.
  1. Sign arguments to support claims with clear reasons and relevant evidence.

    1. Introduce claim(s), acknowledge and distinguish the claim(s) from alternate or opposing claims, and organize the reasons and evidence logically.
    2. Support claim(s) with logical reasoning and relevant evidence, using accurate, credible sources and demonstrating an understanding of the topic or text.
    3. Use words, phrases, depiction, and clauses to create cohesion and clarify the relationships among claim(s), counterclaims, reasons, and evidence.
    4. Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the argument presented.
    5. Establish and maintain a formal style.
  2. Sign informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas, concepts, and information through the selection, organization, and analysis of relevant content.

    1. Introduce a topic clearly, previewing what is to follow; organize ideas, concepts, and information into broader categories; include formatting (e.g., headings), graphics (e.g., charts, tables), and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension.
    2. Develop the topic with relevant, well-chosen facts, definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples.
    3. Use appropriate and varied transitions to create cohesion and clarify the relationships among ideas and concepts.
    4. Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to inform about or explain the topic.
    5. Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the information or explanation presented.
    6. Establish and maintain a formal style.
  3. Sign narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, relevant descriptive details, and well-structured event sequences.

    1. Engage and orient the viewer by establishing a context and point of view and introducing a narrator and/or characters; organize an event sequence that unfolds naturally and logically.
    2. Use narrative techniques, such as dialogue, pacing, description, and reflection, to develop experiences, events, and/or characters.
    3. Use a variety of transition signs, phrases, and clauses to convey sequence, signal shifts from one time frame or setting to another, and show the relationships among experiences and events.
    4. Use precise signs, depiction, and phrases, relevant descriptive details, and sensory language to capture the action and convey experiences and events.
    5. Provide a conclusion that follows from and reflects on the narrated experiences or events.
  1. Sign arguments to support claims in an analysis of substantive topics or texts using valid reasoning and relevant and sufficient evidence.

    1. Introduce precise claim(s), distinguish the claim(s) from alternate or opposing claims, and create an organization that establishes clear relationships among claim(s), counterclaims, reasons, and evidence.
    2. Develop claim(s) and counterclaims fairly, supplying evidence for each while pointing out the strengths and limitations of both in a manner that anticipates the audience's knowledge level and concerns.
    3. Use signs, phrases, depiction, and clauses to link the major sections of the text, create cohesion and clarify the relationships between claim(s)and reasons, between reasons and evidence, and claim(s) and counterclaims.
    4. Establish and maintain a formal style and objective tone while attending to the norms and conventions of the discipline in which they are signing.
    5. Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the argument presented.
  2. Sign informative/explanatory texts to examine and convey complex ideas, concepts, and information clearly and accurately through the effective selection, organization, and analysis of content.

    1. Introduce a topic; organize complex ideas, concepts, and information to make important connections and distinctions; include formatting (e.g., headings), graphics (e.g., figures, tables), and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension.
    2. Develop the topic with well-chosen, relevant, and sufficient facts, extended definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples appropriate to the audience's knowledge of the topic.
    3. Use appropriate and varied transitions to link the major sections of the text, create cohesion, and clarify the relationships among complex ideas and concepts.
    4. Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to manage the complexity of the topic.
    5. Establish and maintain a formal style and objective tone while attending to the norms and conventions of the discipline in which they are signing.
    6. Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the information or explanation presented (e.g., articulating implications or the significance of the topic).
  3. Sign narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, well-chosen details, and well-structured event sequences.

    1. Engage and orient the reader by setting out a problem, situation, or observation, establishing one or multiple point(s) of view, and introducing a narrator and/or characters; create a smooth progression of experiences or events.
    2. Use narrative techniques, such as dialogue, pacing, description, reflection, and multiple plot lines, to develop experiences, events, and/or characters.
    3. Use a variety of techniques to sequence events so that they build on one another to create a coherent whole.
    4. Use precise signs and phrases, telling details, and sensory language to convey a vivid picture of the experiences, events, setting, and/or characters.
    5. Provide a conclusion that follows from and reflects on what is experienced, observed, or resolved over the course of the narrative.
  1. Sign arguments to support claims in an analysis of substantive topics or text using valid reasoning and relevant and sufficient evidence.

    1. Introduce precise claim(s), distinguish the claim(s) from alternate or opposing claims, and create an organization that establishes clear relationships among claim(s), counterclaims, reasons, and evidence.
    2. Develop claim(s) and counterclaims fairly, supplying evidence for each while pointing out the strengths and limitations of both in a manner that anticipates the audience's knowledge level and concerns.
    3. Use signs, phrases, depiction, and clauses to link the major sections of the text, create cohesion and clarify the relationships between claim(s)and reasons, between reasons and evidence, and claim(s) and counterclaims.
    4. Establish and maintain a formal style and objective tone while attending to the norms and conventions of the discipline in which they are signing.
    5. Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the argument presented.
  2. Sign informative/explanatory texts to examine and convey complex ideas, concepts, and information clearly and accurately through the effective selection, organization, and analysis of content.

    1. Introduce a topic; organize complex ideas, concepts, and information to make important connections and distinctions; include formatting (e.g., headings), graphics (e.g., figures, tables), and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension.
    2. Develop the topic with well-chosen, relevant, and sufficient facts, extended definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples appropriate to the audience's knowledge of the topic.
    3. Use appropriate and varied transitions to link the major sections of the text, create cohesion, and clarify the relationships among complex ideas and concepts.
    4. Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to manage the complexity of the topic.
    5. Establish and maintain a formal style and objective tone while attending to the norms and conventions of the discipline in which they are signing.
    6. Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the information or explanation presented (e.g., articulating implications or the significance of the topic).
  3. Sign narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, well-chosen details, and well-structured event sequences.

    1. Engage and orient the reader by setting out a problem, situation, or observation, establishing one or multiple point(s) of view, and introducing a narrator and/or characters; create a smooth progression of experiences or events.
    2. Use narrative techniques, such as dialogue, pacing, description, reflection, and multiple plot lines, to develop experiences, events, and/or characters.
    3. Use a variety of techniques to sequence events so that they build on one another to create a coherent whole.
    4. Use precise signs and phrases, telling details, and sensory language to convey a vivid picture of the experiences, events, setting, and/or characters.
    5. Provide a conclusion that follows from and reflects on what is experienced, observed, or resolved over the course of the narrative.
  1. Sign arguments to support claims in an analysis of substantive topics or texts using valid reasoning and relevant and sufficient evidence.

    1. Introduce precise, knowledgeable claim(s), establish the significance of the claim(s), distinguish the claim(s) from alternate or opposing claims, and create an organization that logically sequences claim(s), counterclaims, reasons, and evidence.
    2. Develop claim(s) and counterclaims fairly and thoroughly, supplying the most relevant evidence for each while pointing out the strengths and limitations of both in a manner that anticipates the audience's knowledge level, concerns, values, and possible biases.
    3. Use signs, phrases, depiction, and clauses as well as varied syntax to link the major sections of the text, create cohesion, and clarify the relationships between claim(s) and reasons, between reasons and evidence, and between claim(s) and counterclaims.
    4. Establish and maintain a formal style and objective tone while attending to the norms and conventions of the discipline in which they are signing.
    5. Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the argument presented.
  2. Sign informative/explanatory texts to examine and convey complex ideas, concepts, and information clearly and accurately through the effective selection, organization, and analysis of content.

    1. Introduce a topic; organize complex ideas, concepts, and information so that each new element builds on that which precedes it to create a unified whole; include formatting (e.g., headings), graphics (e.g., figures, tables), and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension.
    2. Develop the topic thoroughly by selecting the most significant and relevant facts, extended definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples appropriate to the audience's knowledge of the topic.
    3. Use appropriate and varied transitions and syntax to link the major sections of the text, create cohesion, and clarify the relationships among complex ideas and concepts.
    4. Use precise language, domain-specific vocabulary, and techniques such as metaphor, simile, and analogy to manage the complexity of the topic.
    5. Establish and maintain a formal style and objective tone while attending to the norms and conventions of the discipline in which they are signing.
    6. Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the information or explanation presented (e.g., articulating implications or the significance of the topic).
  3. Sign narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, well-chosen details, and well-structured event sequences.

    1. Engage and orient the reader by setting out a problem, situation, or observation and its significance, establishing one or multiple point(s) of view, and introducing a narrator and/or characters; create a smooth progression of experiences or events.
    2. Use narrative techniques, such as dialogue, pacing, description, reflection, and multiple plot lines, to develop experiences, events, and/or characters.
    3. Use a variety of techniques to sequence events so that they build on one another to create a coherent whole and build toward a particular tone and outcome (e.g., a sense of mystery, suspense, growth, or resolution).
    4. Use precise signs and phrases, telling details, and sensory language to convey a vivid picture of the experiences, events, setting, and/or characters.
    5. Provide a conclusion that follows from and reflects on what is experienced, observed, or resolved over the course of the narrative.
  1. Sign arguments to support claims in an analysis of substantive topics or texts using valid reasoning and relevant and sufficient evidence.

    1. Introduce precise, knowledgeable claim(s), establish the significance of the claim(s), distinguish the claim(s) from alternate or opposing claims, and create an organization that logically sequences claim(s), counterclaims, reasons, and evidence.
    2. Develop claim(s) and counterclaims fairly and thoroughly, supplying the most relevant evidence for each while pointing out the strengths and limitations of both in a manner that anticipates the audience's knowledge level, concerns, values, and possible biases.
    3. Use signs, phrases, depiction, and clauses as well as varied syntax to link the major sections of the text, create cohesion, and clarify the relationships between claim(s) and reasons, between reasons and evidence, and between claim(s) and counterclaims.
    4. Establish and maintain a formal style and objective tone while attending to the norms and conventions of the discipline in which they are signing.
    5. Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the argument presented.
  2. Sign informative/explanatory texts to examine and convey complex ideas, concepts, and information clearly and accurately through the effective selection, organization, and analysis of content.

    1. Introduce a topic; organize complex ideas, concepts, and information so that each new element builds on that which precedes it to create a unified whole; include formatting (e.g., headings), graphics (e.g., figures, tables), and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension.
    2. Develop the topic thoroughly by selecting the most significant and relevant facts, extended definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples appropriate to the audience's knowledge of the topic.
    3. Use appropriate and varied transitions and syntaxto link the major sections of the text, create cohesion, and clarify the relationships among complex ideas and concepts.
    4. Use precise language, domain-specific vocabulary, and techniques such as metaphor, simile, and analogy to manage the complexity of the topic.
    5. Establish and maintain a formal style and objective tone while attending to the norms and conventions of the discipline in which they are signing.
    6. Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the information or explanation presented (e.g., articulating implications or the significance of the topic).
  3. Sign narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, well-chosen details, and well-structured event sequences.

    1. Engage and orient the reader by setting out a problem, situation, or observation and its significance, establishing one or multiple point(s) of view, and introducing a narrator and/or characters; create a smooth progression of experiences or events.
    2. Use narrative techniques, such as dialogue, pacing, description, reflection, and multiple plot lines, to develop experiences, events, and/or characters.
    3. Use a variety of techniques to sequence events so that they build on one another to create a coherent whole and build toward a particular tone and outcome (e.g., a sense of mystery, suspense, growth, or resolution).
    4. Use precise signs and phrases, telling details, and sensory language to convey a vivid picture of the experiences, events, setting, and/or characters.
    5. Provide a conclusion that follows from and reflects on what is experienced, observed, or resolved over the course of the narrative.
Production and Distribution of Published Signing
  1. (Begins in grade 2.)

  2. With guidance and support from adults, respond to questions and suggestions from peers and add details to strengthen signing as needed.

  3. With guidance and support from adults, explore a variety of digital tools to produce and published signing, including in collaboration with peers.

  1. (Begins in grade 2.)

  2. With guidance and support from adults, focus on a topic, respond to questions and suggestions from peers, and add details to strengthen signing as needed.

  3. With guidance and support from adults, use a variety of digital tools to produce and publish signing, including in collaboration with peers.

  1. With guidance and support from adults, produce signing in which the development and organization are appropriate to task and purpose. (Grade-specific expectations for signing types are defined in standards 1-3 above.)

  2. With guidance and support from adults and peers, focus on a topic and strengthen signing as needed by revising and editing.

  3. With guidance and support from adults, use a variety of digital tools to produce and publish signing, including in collaboration with peers.

  1. With guidance and support from adults, produce clear and coherent signing in which the development and organization are appropriate to task and purpose. (Grade-specific expectations for signing types are defined in standards 1-3 above.)

  2. With guidance and support from peers and adults, develop and strengthen signing as needed by planning, revising, and editing. (Editing for structure should demonstrate command of Language standards 1-3 up to and including grade 3)

  3. With guidance and support from adults, use technology to produce and publish signing (using editing skills) as well as to interact and collaborate with others.

  1. Produce clear and coherent signing in which the development and organization are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. (Grade-specific expectations for signing types are defined in standards 1-3 above.)

  2. With guidance and support from peers and adults, develop and strengthen signing as needed by planning, revising, and editing. (Editing for structure should demonstrate command of Language standards 1-3 up to and including grade 4)

  3. With some guidance and support from adults, use technology, including the Internet, to produce and publish signing as well as to interact and collaborate with others; demonstrate sufficient command of video editing skills to compose a minimum of two minutes of video.

  1. Produce clear and coherent signing in which the development and organization are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. (Grade-specific expectations for signing types are defined in standards 1-3 above.)

  2. With guidance and support from peers and adults, develop and strengthen signing as needed by planning, revising, editing, re-signing, or trying a new approach. (Editing for structure should demonstrate command of Language standards 1-3 up to and including grade 5)

  3. With some guidance and support from adults, use technology, including the Internet, to produce and publish signing as well as to interact and collaborate with others; demonstrate sufficient command of video editing skills to compose a minimum of four minutes of video.

  1. Produce clear and coherent signing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. (Grade-specific expectations for signing types are defined in standards 1-3 above.)

  2. With some guidance and support from peers and adults, develop and strengthen signing as needed by planning, revising, editing, re-signing, or trying a new approach. (Editing for structure should demonstrate command of Language standards 1-3.)

  3. Use technology, including the Internet, to produce and publish signing as well as to interact and collaborate with others; demonstrate sufficient command of video editing skills to compose a minimum of four minutes of video.

  1. Produce clear and coherent signing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. (Grade-specific expectations for signing types are defined in standards 1-3 above.)

  2. With some guidance and support from peers and adults, develop and strengthen signing as needed by planning, revising, editing, re-signing, or trying a new approach, focusing on how well purpose and audience have been addressed. (Editing for structure should demonstrate command of Language standards 1-3.)

  3. Use technology, including the Internet, to produce and publish signing and link to and cite sources as well as to interact and collaborate with others, including linking to and citing sources.

  1. Produce clear and coherent signing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. (Grade-specific expectations for signing types are defined in standards 1-3 above.)

  2. With some guidance and support from peers and adults, develop and strengthen signing as needed by planning, revising, editing, re-signing, or trying a new approach, focusing on how well purpose and audience have been addressed. (Editing for structure should demonstrate command of Language standards 1-3.)

  3. Use technology, including the Internet, to produce and publish signing and present the relationships between information and ideas efficiently as well as to interact and collaborate with others, including linking to and citing sources.

  1. Produce clear and coherent signing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. (Grade-specific expectations for signing types are defined in standards 1-3 above.)

  2. Develop and strengthen signing as needed by planning, revising, editing, re-signing, or trying a new approach, focusing on addressing what is most significant for a specific purpose and audience. (Editing for conventions should demonstrate command of Language standards 1-3 up to and including grades 9-10.)

  3. Use technology, including the Internet, to produce, publish, and update individual or shared signing products, taking advantage of technology's capacity to link to other information and to display information flexibly and dynamically.

  1. Produce clear and coherent signing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. (Grade-specific expectations for signing types are defined in standards 1-3 above.)

  2. Develop and strengthen signing as needed by planning, revising, editing, re-signing, or trying a new approach, focusing on addressing what is most significant for a specific purpose and audience. (Editing for conventions should demonstrate command of Language standards 1-3 up to and including grades 9-10.)

  3. Use technology, including the Internet, to produce, publish, and update individual or shared signing products, taking advantage of technology's capacity to link to other information and to display information flexibly and dynamically.

  1. Produce clear and coherent signing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. (Grade-specific expectations for signing types are defined in standards 1-3 above.)

  2. Develop and strengthen signing as needed by planning, revising, editing, re-signing, or trying a new approach, focusing on addressing what is most significant for a specific purpose and audience. (Editing for conventions should demonstrate command of Language standards 1-3 up to and including grades 11-12.)

  3. Use technology, including the Internet, to produce, publish, and update individual or shared signing products in response to ongoing feedback, including new arguments or information.

  1. Produce clear and coherent signing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. (Grade-specific expectations for signing types are defined in standards 1-3 above.)

  2. Develop and strengthen signing as needed by planning, revising, editing, re-signing, or trying a new approach, focusing on addressing what is most significant for a specific purpose and audience. (Editing for conventions should demonstrate command of Language standards 1-3 up to and including grades 11-12.)

  3. Use technology, including the Internet, to produce, publish, and update individual or shared signing products in response to ongoing feedback, including new arguments or information.

Research to Build and Present Knowledge
  1. Participate in shared research and signing projects (e.g., explore a number of texts by a favorite author and/or signer and express opinions about them).

  2. With guidance and support from adults, recall information from experiences or gather information from provided sources to answer a question.

  3. (Begins in grade 4.)

  1. Participate in shared research and signing projects (e.g., explore a number of "how-to" resources on a given topic and use them to sign a sequence of instructions).

  2. With guidance and support from adults, recall information from experiences or gather information from provided sources to answer a question.

  3. (Begins in grade 4.)

  1. Participate in shared research and signing projects (e.g., view a number of texts on a single topic to produce a report; record science observations).

  2. Recall information from experiences or gather information from provided sources to answer a question.

  3. (Begins in grade 4.)

  1. Conduct short research projects that build knowledge about a topic.

  2. Recall information from experiences or gather information from published texts and other digital sources; take brief notes on sources and sort evidence into provided categories.

  3. (Begins in grade 4.)

  1. Conduct short research projects that build knowledge through investigation of different aspects of a topic.

  2. Recall relevant information from experiences or gather relevant information from print and digital sources; take notes and categorize information, and provide a list of sources.

  3. Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.

    1. Apply grade 4 Viewing standards to literature (e.g., "Describe in depth a character, setting, or event in a story or drama, drawing on specific details in the text [e.g., a character's thoughts, signs, or actions].").
    2. Apply grade 4 Viewing standards to informational texts (e.g., "Explain how an author uses reasons and evidence to support particular points in a text.").
  1. Conduct short research projects that use several sources to build knowledge through investigation of different aspects of a topic.

  2. Recall relevant information from experiences or gather relevant information from print and digital sources; summarize or paraphrase information
in notes and finished work, and provide a list of sources.

  3. Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.

    1. Apply grade 5 Viewing standards to literature (e.g., "Compare and contrast two or more characters, settings, or events in a story or a drama, drawing on specific details in the text [e.g., how characters interact].").
    2. Apply grade 5 Viewing standards to informational texts (e.g., "Explain how
 an author uses reasons and evidence to support particular points in a text, identifying which reasons and evidence support which point[s].").
  1. Conduct short research projects to answer a question, drawing on several sources and refocusing the inquiry when appropriate.

  2. Gather relevant information from multiple published and digital sources; assess the credibility of each source; and quote or paraphrase the data and conclusions of others while avoiding plagiarism and providing basic bibliographic information for sources.

  3. Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.

    1. Apply grade 6 Viewing standards to literature (e.g., "Compare and contrast texts in different forms or genres [e.g., stories and poems; historical novels and fantasy stories] in terms of their approaches to similar themes and topics.").
    2. Apply grade 6 Viewing standards to literary nonfiction (e.g., "Trace and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, distinguishing claims that are supported by reasons and evidence from claims that are not.").
  1. Conduct short research projects to answer a question, drawing on several sources and generating additional related, focused questions for further research and investigation.

  2. Gather relevant information from multiple published and digital sources, using search terms effectively; assess the credibility and accuracy of each source; and quote or paraphrase the data and conclusions of others while avoiding plagiarism and following a standard format for citation.

  3. Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.

    1. Apply grade 7 Viewing standards to literature (e.g., "Compare and contrast a fictional portrayal of a time, place, or character and a historical account of the same period as a means of understanding how author of fiction use or alter history.").
    2. Apply grade 7 Viewing standards to literary nonfiction (e.g., "Trace and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, assessing whether the reasoning is solid and the evidence is relevant and sufficient to support the claims.").
  1. Conduct short research projects to answer a question (including a self-generated question), drawing on several sources and generating additional related, focused questions that allow for multiple avenues of exploration.

  2. Gather relevant information from multiple published and digital sources, using search terms effectively; assess the credibility and accuracy of each source; and quote or paraphrase the data and conclusions of others while avoiding plagiarism and following a standard format for citation.

  3. Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.

    1. Apply grade 8 Viewing standards to literature (e.g., "Analyze how a modern work of fiction draws on themes, patterns of events, or character types from myths, traditional stories, or religious works.").
    2. Apply grade 8 Viewing standards to literary nonfiction (e.g., "Delineate and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, assessing whether the reasoning is solid and the evidence is relevant and sufficient; recognize when irrelevant evidence is introduced.").
  1. Conduct short as well as more sustained research projects to answer a question (including a self-generated question) or solve a problem; narrow or broaden the inquiry when appropriate; synthesize multiple sources on the subject, demonstrating understanding of the subject under investigation.

  2. Gather relevant information from multiple authoritative published and digital sources, using advanced searches effectively; assess the usefulness of each source in answering the research question; integrate information into the text selectively to maintain the flow of ideas, avoiding plagiarism and following a standard format for citation.

  3. Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.

    1. Apply grades 9-10 Viewing standards to literature (e.g., "Analyze how an author draws on and transforms source material in a specific work [e.g., how Theron Parker treats Jabberwocky from Joe Velez's version].").
    2. Apply grades 9-10 Viewing standards to literary nonfiction (e.g., "Delineate and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, assessing whether the reasoning is valid and the evidence is relevant and sufficient; identify false statements and fallacious reasoning.").
  1. Conduct short as well as more sustained research projects to answer a question (including a self-generated question) or solve a problem; narrow or broaden the inquiry when appropriate; synthesize multiple sources on the subject, demonstrating understanding of the subject under investigation.

  2. Gather relevant information from multiple authoritative published and digital sources, using advanced searches effectively; assess the usefulness of each source in answering the research question; integrate information into the text selectively to maintain the flow of ideas, avoiding plagiarism and following a standard format for citation.

  3. Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.

    1. Apply grades 9-10 Viewing standards to literature (e.g., "Analyze how an author draws on and transforms source material in a specific work [e.g., how Theron Parker treats Jabberwocky from Joe Velez's version].").
    2. Apply grades 9-10 Viewing standards to literary nonfiction (e.g., "Delineate and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, assessing whether the reasoning is valid and the evidence is relevant and sufficient; identify false statements and fallacious reasoning.").
  1. Conduct short as well as more sustained research projects to answer a question (including a self-generated question) or solve a problem; narrow or broaden the inquiry when appropriate; synthesize multiple sources on the subject, demonstrating understanding of the subject under investigation.

  2. Gather relevant information from multiple authoritative published and digital sources, using advanced searches effectively; assess the strengths and limitations of each source in terms of the task, purpose, and audience; integrate information into the text selectively to maintain the flow of ideas, avoiding plagiarism and overreliance on any one source and following a standard format for citation.

  3. Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.

    1. Apply grades 11-12 Viewing standards to literature (e.g., "Demonstrate knowledge of 19th- and early 20th-century foundational works of American literature, including how two or more texts from the same period treat similar themes or topics."). Analyze seminal text of historical and literary significance (e.g., "The Preservation of the Sign Language" by George Veditz), including how they address related themes and concepts.
    2. Apply grades 11-12 Viewing standards to literary nonfiction (e.g., "Delineate and evaluate the reasoning in seminal texts about the Deaf literature experience, including the premises, purposes, and arguments in works of advocacy [e.g., Tedx talks on audism, linguisicism, advocacy].").
  1. Conduct short as well as more sustained research projects to answer a question (including a self-generated question) or solve a problem; narrow or broaden the inquiry when appropriate; synthesize multiple sources on the subject, demonstrating understanding of the subject under investigation.

  2. Gather relevant information from multiple authoritative published and digital sources, using advanced searches effectively; assess the strengths and limitations of each source in terms of the task, purpose, and audience; integrate information into the text selectively to maintain the flow of ideas, avoiding plagiarism and overreliance on any one source and following a standard format for citation.

  3. Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.

    1. Apply grades 11-12 Viewing standards to literature (e.g., "Demonstrate knowledge of 19th- and early 20th-century foundational works of American literature, including how two or more texts from the same period treat similar themes or topics."). Analyze seminal text of historical and literary significance (e.g., "The Preservation of the Sign Language" by George Veditz), including how they address related themes and concepts.
    2. Apply grades 11-12 Viewing standards to literary nonfiction (e.g., "Delineate and evaluate the reasoning in seminal texts about the Deaf experience, including the premises, purposes, and arguments in works of advocacy [e.g., Tedx talks on audism, linguisicism, advocacy].").
Range of Signing
  1. Publish signing over short time frames (e.g., a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of discipline-specific tasks, purposes, and audiences.

  1. With guidance and support, sign routinely over extended time frames (e.g., time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (e.g., a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of discipline-specific tasks, purposes, and audiences.

  1. Sign routinely over extended time frames (e.g., time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (e.g., a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of discipline-specific tasks, purposes, and audiences.

  1. Sign routinely over extended time frames (e.g., time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (e.g., a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of discipline-specific tasks, purposes, and audiences.

  1. Sign routinely over extended time frames (e.g., time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (e.g., a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of discipline-specific tasks, purposes, and audiences.

  1. Sign routinely over extended time frames (e.g., time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (e.g., a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of discipline-specific tasks, purposes, and audiences.

  1. Sign routinely over extended time frames (e.g., time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (e.g., a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of discipline-specific tasks, purposes, and audiences.

  1. Sign routinely over extended time frames (e.g., time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (e.g., a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of discipline-specific tasks, purposes, and audiences.

  1. Sign routinely over extended time frames (e.g., time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (e.g., a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of discipline-specific tasks, purposes, and audiences.

  1. Sign routinely over extended time frames (e.g., time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (e.g., a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of tasks, purposes, and audiences.

  1. Sign routinely over extended time frames (e.g., time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (e.g., a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of tasks, purposes, and audiences.

  1. Sign routinely over extended time frames (e.g., time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (e.g., a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of tasks, purposes, and audiences.

  1. Sign routinely over extended time frames (e.g., time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (e.g., a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of tasks, purposes, and audiences.

Discourse and Presentation Standards

The following standards define what students should understand and be able to do by the end of each grade. The College and Career Readiness Anchor Standards and the Grade-level Standards are necessary complements-the former providing broad standards, the latter providing additional specificity.

Kindergartners Grade 1 Students Grade 2 Students Grade 3 Students Grade 4 Students Grade 5 Students Grade 6 Students Grade 7 Students Grade 8 Students Grade 9 Students Grade 10 Students Grade 11 Students Grade 12 Students
Comprehension and Collaboration
  1. Participate in collaborative conversations with diverse partners about kindergarten topics and texts with peers and adults in small and larger groups.

    1. Follow agreed-upon rules for discussions (e.g., attending to others and taking turns signing about the topics and texts under discussion).
    2. Continue a conversation through multiple exchanges.
    3. Can use visual access strategies (e.g., reposition self when visual access is blocked; positioning to see signer; maintaining eye-gaze).
  2. Confirm understanding of storytelling or storysigning or information signed or through other media by asking and answering questions about key details and requesting clarification if something is not understood.

  3. Ask and answer questions in order to seek help, get information, or clarify something that is not understood.

  1. Participate in collaborative conversations with diverse partners about grade 1 topics and texts with peers and adults in small and larger groups.

    1. Follow agreed-upon rules for discussions (e.g., taking turns signing about the topics and texts under discussion).
    2. Build on others' talk in conversations by responding to the comments of others through multiple exchanges.
    3. Ask questions to clear up confusion about the topics and videos under discussion.
    4. Produce and respond appropriately to attention-getting strategies.
  2. Ask and answer questions about key details in storytelling or storysigning or information signed or through other media.

  3. Ask and answer questions about what a signer says in order to gather additional information or clarify something that is not understood.

  1. Participate in collaborative conversations with diverse partners about grade 2 topics and texts with peers and adults in small and larger groups.

    1. Follow agreed-upon rules for discussions (e.g., gaining the floor in respectful ways, listening to others with care, signing one at a time about the topics and texts under discussion).
    2. Build on others talk in conversations by linking their comments to the remarks of others.
    3. Ask for clarification and further explanation as needed about the topics and texts under discussion.
  2. Recount or describe key ideas or details from a storytelling or storysigning or information signed or through other media.

  3. Ask and answer questions about what a signer says in order to clarify comprehension, gather additional information, or deepen understanding of a topic or issue.

  1. Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (e.g., one-on-one, in groups, teacher-led) with diverse partners on grade 3 topics and texts, building on others' ideas and expressing their own clearly.

    1. Come to discussions prepared, having viewed or studied required material; explicitly draw on that preparation and other information known about the topic to explore ideas under discussion.
    2. Follow agreed-upon rules for discussions (e.g., gaining the floor in respectful ways, listening to others with care, signing one at a time about the topics and texts under discussion).
    3. Ask questions to check understanding of information presented, stay on topic, and link their comments to the remarks of others.
    4. Explain their own ideas and understanding in light of the discussion.
  2. Determine the main ideas and supporting details of a storytelling or storysigning or information signed or through diverse media and formats, including quantitatively and visually.

  3. Ask and answer questions about information from a signer, offering appropriate elaboration and detail.

  1. Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (e.g., one-on-one, in groups, teacher-led) with diverse partners on grade 4 topics and texts, building on others' ideas and expressing their own clearly.

    1. Come to discussions prepared, having viewed or studied required material; explicitly draw on that preparation and other information known about the topic to explore ideas under discussion.
    2. Follow agreed-upon rules for discussions and carry out assigned roles.
    3. Pose and respond to specific questions to clarify or follow up on information, and make comments that contribute to the discussion and link to the remarks of others.
    4. Review the key ideas expressed and explain their own ideas and understanding in light of the discussion.
  2. Paraphrase portions of a text signed or information presented in diverse media and formats, live or published, including those with visual or quantitative information.

  3. Identify the reasons and evidence a signers provides to support particular points.

  1. Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (e.g., one-on-one, in groups, teacher- led) with diverse partners on grade 5 topics and texts, building on others' ideas and expressing their own clearly.

    1. Come to discussions prepared, having viewed or studied required material; explicitly draw on that preparation and other information known about the topic to explore ideas under discussion.
    2. Follow agreed-upon rules for discussions and carry out assigned roles.
    3. Pose and respond to specific questions by making comments that contribute to the discussion and elaborate on the remarks of others.
    4. Review the key ideas expressed and draw conclusions in light of information and knowledge gained from the discussions.
  2. Summarize a text signed or information presented in diverse media and formats, live or published , including those with visual or quantitative information.

  3. Summarize the points a signer makes and explain how each claim is supported by reasons and evidence.

  1. Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (e.g., one-on-one, in groups, teacher-led) with diverse partners on grade 6 topics, texts, and issues, building on others' ideas and expressing their own clearly.

    1. Come to discussions prepared, having viewed or studied required material; explicitly draw on that preparation by referring to evidence on the topic, text , or issue to probe and reflect on ideas under discussion.
    2. Follow rules for collegial discussions, set specific goals and deadlines, and define individual roles as needed.
    3. Pose and respond to specific questions with elaboration and detail by making comments that contribute to the topic, text, or issue under discussion.
    4. Review the key ideas expressed and demonstrate understanding of multiple perspectives through reflection and paraphrasing.
  2. Interpret information presented in diverse media and formats (e.g., visually, quantitatively) and explain how it contributes to a topic, text, or issue under study.

  3. Delineate a signer's argument and specific claims, distinguishing claims that are supported by reasons and evidence from claims that are not.

  1. Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (e.g., one-on-one, in groups, teacher-led) with diverse partners on grade 7 topics, texts, and issues, building on others' ideas and expressing their own clearly.

    1. Come to discussions prepared, having viewed or researched material under study; explicitly draw on that preparation by referring to evidence on the topic, text, or issue to probe and reflect on ideas under discussion.
    2. Follow rules for collegial discussions, track progress toward specific goals and deadlines, and define individual roles as needed.
    3. Pose questions that elicit elaboration and respond to others' questions and comments with relevant observations and ideas that bring the discussion back on topic as needed.
    4. Acknowledge new information expressed by others and, when warranted, modify their own views.
  2. Analyze the main ideas and supporting details presented in diverse media and formats (e.g., visually, quantitatively) and explain how the ideas clarify a topic, text, or issue under study.

  3. Delineate a signer's argument and specific claims, evaluating the strength of the reasoning and the relevance and sufficiency of the evidence.

  1. Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (e.g., one-on-one, in groups, teacher-led) with diverse partners on grade 8 topics, texts, and issues, building on others' ideas and expressing their own clearly.

    1. Come to discussions prepared, having viewed or researched material under study; explicitly draw on that preparation by referring to evidence on the topic, text, or issue to probe and reflect on ideas under discussion.
    2. Follow rules for collegial discussions and decision-making, track progress toward specific goals and deadlines, and define individual roles as needed.
    3. Pose questions that connect the ideas of several speakers and respond to others' questions and comments with relevant evidence, observations, and ideas.
    4. Acknowledge new information expressed by others, and, when warranted, qualify or justify their own views in light of the evidence presented.
  2. Analyze the purpose of information presented in diverse media and formats (e.g., visually, quantitatively) and evaluate the motives (e.g., social, commercial, political) behind its presentation.

  3. Delineate a signer's argument and specific claims, evaluating the strength of the reasoning and relevance and sufficiency of the evidence and identifying when irrelevant evidence is introduced.

  1. Initiate and participate effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (e.g., one-on-one, in groups, teacher-led) with diverse partners on grades 9-10 topics, texts, and issues, building on others' ideas and expressing their own clearly and persuasively.

    1. Come to discussions prepared, having viewed and researched material under study; explicitly draw on that preparation by referring to evidence from texts and other research on the topic or issue to stimulate a thoughtful, well-reasoned exchange of ideas.
    2. Work with peers to set rules for collegial discussions and decision making (e.g., informal consensus, taking votes on key issues, presentation of alternate views), clear goals and deadlines, and individual roles as needed.
    3. Propel conversations by posing and responding to questions that relate the current discussion to broader themes or larger ideas; actively incorporate others into the discussion; and clarify, verify, or challenge ideas and conclusions.
    4. Respond thoughtfully to diverse perspectives, summarize points of agreement and disagreement, and, when warranted, qualify or justify their own views and understanding and make new connections in light of the evidence and reasoning presented.
  2. Integrate multiple sources of information presented in diverse media or formats (e.g., visually, quantitatively) evaluating the credibility and accuracy of each source.

  3. Evaluate a signers point of view, reasoning, and use of evidence and rhetoric, identifying any fallacious reasoning or exaggerated or distorted evidence.

  1. Initiate and participate effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (e.g., one-on-one, in groups, teacher-led) with diverse partners on grades 9-10 topics, texts, and issues, building on others' ideas and expressing their own clearly and persuasively.

    1. Come to discussions prepared, having viewed and researched material under study; explicitly draw on that preparation by referring to evidence from texts and other research on the topic or issue to stimulate a thoughtful, well-reasoned exchange of ideas.
    2. Work with peers to set rules for collegial discussions and decision making (e.g., informal consensus, taking votes on key issues, presentation of alternate views), clear goals and deadlines, and individual roles as needed.
    3. Propel conversations by posing and responding to questions that relate the current discussion to broader themes or larger ideas; actively incorporate others into the discussion; and clarify, verify, or challenge ideas and conclusions.
    4. Respond thoughtfully to diverse perspectives, summarize points of agreement and disagreement, and, when warranted, qualify or justify their own views and understanding and make new connections in light of the evidence and reasoning presented.
  2. Integrate multiple sources of information presented in diverse media or formats (e.g., visually, quantitatively) evaluating the credibility and accuracy of each source.

  3. Evaluate a signer's point of view, reasoning, and use of evidence and rhetoric, identifying any fallacious reasoning or exaggerated or distorted evidence.

  1. Initiate and participate effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (e.g., one-on-one, in groups, teacher-led) with diverse partners on grades 11-12 topics, texts, and issues, building on others' ideas and expressing their own clearly and persuasively.

    1. Come to discussions prepared, having viewed and researched material under study; explicitly draw on that preparation by referring to evidence from texts and other research on the topic or issue to stimulate a thoughtful, well-reasoned exchange of ideas.
    2. Work with peers to promote civil, democratic discussions and decision making, set clear goals and deadlines, and establish individual roles as needed.
    3. Propel conversations by posing and responding to questions that probe reasoning and evidence; ensure a platform of discussion for a full range of positions on a topic or issue; clarify, verify, or challenge ideas and conclusions; and promote divergent and creative perspectives.
    4. Respond thoughtfully to diverse perspectives; synthesize comments, claims, and evidence made on all sides of an issue; resolve contradictions when possible; and determine what additional information or research is required to deepen the investigation or complete the task.
  2. Integrate multiple sources of information presented in diverse formats and media (e.g., visually, quantitatively) in order to make informed decisions and solve problems, evaluating the credibility and accuracy of each source and noting any discrepancies among the data.

  3. Evaluate a signer's point of view, reasoning, and use of evidence and rhetoric, assessing the stance, premises, links among ideas, word choice, points of emphasis, and tone used.

  1. Initiate and participate effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (e.g., one-on-one, in groups, teacher-led) with diverse partners on grades 11-12 topics, texts, and issues, building on others' ideas and expressing their own clearly and persuasively.

    1. Come to discussions prepared, having viewed and researched material under study; explicitly draw on that preparation by referring to evidence from texts and other research on the topic or issue to stimulate a thoughtful, well-reasoned exchange of ideas.
    2. Work with peers to promote civil, democratic discussions and decision making, set clear goals and deadlines, and establish individual roles as needed.
    3. Propel conversations by posing and responding to questions that probe reasoning and evidence; ensure a platform of discussion for a full range of positions on a topic or issue; clarify, verify, or challenge ideas and conclusions; and promote divergent and creative perspectives.
    4. Respond thoughtfully to diverse perspectives; synthesize comments, claims, and evidence made on all sides of an issue; resolve contradictions when possible; and determine what additional information or research is required to deepen the investigation or complete the task.
  2. Integrate multiple sources of information presented in diverse formats and media (e.g., visually, quantitatively) in order to make informed decisions and solve problems, evaluating the credibility and accuracy of each source and noting any discrepancies among the data.

  3. Evaluate a signer's point of view, reasoning, and use of evidence and rhetoric, assessing the stance, premises, links among ideas, word choice, points of emphasis, and tone used.

Presentation of Knowledge and Ideas
  1. Describe familiar people, places, things, and events and, with prompting and support, provide additional detail.

  2. Add drawings or other visual displays to descriptions as desired to provide additional detail.

  3. Sign clearly and express thoughts, feelings, and ideas clearly.

  1. Describe people, places, things, and events with relevant details, expressing ideas and feelings clearly.

  2. Add drawings or other visual displays to descriptions when appropriate to clarify ideas, thoughts, and feelings.

  3. Produce complete sentences when appropriate to task and situation. (See grade 1 Language standards 1 and 3 for specific expectations)

  1. Tell a story or recount an experience with appropriate facts and relevant, descriptive details, signing clearly in coherent sentences.

  2. Create stories or poems; add drawings or other visual displays to stories or recounts of experiences when appropriate to clarify ideas, thoughts, and feelings.

  3. Produce complete sentences when appropriate to task and situation in order to provide requested detail or clarification. (See grade 2 Language standards 1 and 3 for specific expectations)

  1. Report on a topic or text, tell a story, or recount an experience with appropriate facts and relevant descriptive details, signing clearly at an understandable pace.

  2. Create engaging stories or poems that demonstrate fluid signing at an understandable pace; add visual displays when appropriate to emphasize or enhance certain facts or details.

  3. Sign in complete sentences when appropriate to task and situation in order to provide requested detail or clarification. (See grade 3 Language standards 1 and 3)

  1. Report on a topic or text, tell a story, or recount an experience in an organized manner using appropriate facts and relevant, descriptive details to support main ideas or themes; sign clearly at an understandable pace.

  2. Add video recordings and visual displays to presentations when appropriate to enhance the development of main ideas or themes.

  3. Differentiate between contexts that call for formal ASL (e.g., presenting ideas) and situations where informal discourse is appropriate (e.g., small-group discussion); use formal ASL when appropriate to task and situation. (See grade 4 Language standards 1)

  1. Report on a topic or text or present an opinion, sequencing ideas logically and using appropriate facts and relevant, descriptive details to support main ideas or themes; sign clearly at an understandable pace.

  2. Include multimedia components (e.g., graphics, animation) and visual displays in presentations when appropriate to enhance the development of main ideas or themes.

  3. Adapt sign to a variety of contexts and tasks, using formal ASL when appropriate to task and situation. (See grade 5 Language standards 1)

  1. Present claims and findings, sequencing ideas logically and using pertinent descriptions, facts, and details to accentuate main ideas or themes; use appropriate eye contact, appropriate signing space, and clear production.

  2. Include multimedia components (e.g., graphics, images) and visual displays in presentations to clarify information.

  3. Adapt signs to a variety of contexts and tasks, demonstrating command of formal ASL when indicated or appropriate. (See grade 6 Language standards for specific expectations.)

  1. Present claims and findings, emphasizing salient points in a focused, coherent manner with pertinent descriptions, facts, details, and examples; use appropriate eye contact, appropriate signing space, and clear production.

  2. Include multimedia components and visual displays in presentations to clarify claims and findings and emphasize salient points.

  3. Adapt signs to a variety of contexts and tasks, demonstrating command of formal ASL when indicated or appropriate. (See grade 7 Language standards for specific expectations.)

  1. Present claims and findings, emphasizing salient points in a focused, coherent manner with relevant evidence, valid reasoning, and well-chosen details; use appropriate eye contact, appropriate signing space, and clear production.

  2. Integrate multimedia and visual displays into presentations to clarify information, strengthen claims and evidence, and add interest.

  3. Adapt signs to a variety of contexts and tasks, demonstrating command of formal ASL when indicated or appropriate. (See grade 8 Language standards for specific expectations.)

  1. Present information, findings, and supporting evidence clearly, concisely, and logically such that viewers can follow the line of reasoning and the organization, development, substance, and style are appropriate to purpose, audience, and task.

  2. Make strategic use of digital media (e.g., textual, graphical, visual, and interactive elements) in presentations to enhance understanding of findings, reasoning, and evidence and to add interest.

  3. Adapt signs to a variety of contexts and tasks, demonstrating command of formal ASL when indicated or appropriate. (See grades 9-10 Language standards 1 and 3 for specific expectations.)

  1. Present information, findings, and supporting evidence clearly, concisely, and logically such that viewers can follow the line of reasoning and the organization, development, substance, and style are appropriate to purpose, audience, and task.

  2. Make strategic use of digital media (e.g., textual, graphical, visual, and interactive elements) in presentations to enhance understanding of findings, reasoning, and evidence and to add interest.

  3. Adapt signsto a variety of contexts and tasks, demonstrating command of formal ASL when indicated or appropriate. (See grades 9-10 Language standards 1 and 3 for specific expectations.)

  1. Present information, findings, and supporting evidence, conveying a clear and distinct perspective, such that viewers can follow the line of reasoning, alternative or opposing perspectives are addressed, and the organization, development, substance, and style are appropriate to purpose, audience, and a range of formal and informal tasks.

  2. Make strategic use of digital media (e.g., textual, graphical, visual, and interactive elements) in presentations to enhance understanding of findings, reasoning, and evidence and to add interest.

  3. Adapt signs to a variety of contexts and tasks, demonstrating a command of formal ASL when indicated or appropriate. (See grades 11-12 Language standards 1 and 3 for specific expectations.)

  1. Present information, findings, and supporting evidence, conveying a clear and distinct perspective, such that viewers can follow the line of reasoning, alternative or opposing perspectives are addressed, and the organization, development, substance, and style are appropriate to purpose, audience, and a range of formal and informal tasks.

  2. Make strategic use of digital media (e.g., textual, graphical, visual, and interactive elements) in presentations to enhance understanding of findings, reasoning, and evidence and to add interest.

  3. Adapt signs to a variety of contexts and tasks, demonstrating a command of formal ASL when indicated or appropriate. (See grades 11-12 Language standards 1 and 3 for specific expectations.)

Language Standards

The K-12 Grade-level Standards on the following pages define what students should understand and be able to do by the end of each grade. The College and Career Readiness Anchor Standards and the Grade-level Standards are necessary complements-the former providing broad standards, the latter providing additional specificity.

Kindergartners Grade 1 Students Grade 2 Students Grade 3 Students Grade 4 Students Grade 5 Students Grade 6 Students Grade 7 Students Grade 8 Students Grade 9 Students Grade 10 Students Grade 11 Students Grade 12 Students
Structure of American Sign Language
  1. Demonstrate command of the structure of standard ASL grammar and usage when signing (live and published).

    1. Use the full range of handshapes.
    2. Use frequently occurring nouns, verbs, and depictions.
    3. Form plural nouns by modifying parameters.
    4. Use question signs and non-manual markers (e.g., WHO-Q, WHAT-Q, WHY-Q, WHERE-Q, HOW-Q, WHEN-Q).
    5. Use the most frequently occurring prepositions through referents (e.g., CL: 3 CAR NEXT-TO CL-5 TREE, HURT-ON-TUMMY).).
    6. Produce and expand complete sentences in shared language activities.
    7. Use non-manual markers and classifiers to produce frequently occurring adjectives and adverbs.
    8. Produce sentences with indicating verbs (e.g., BOY-THERE-TELL-ME).
    9. Use pronouns as spatial referents (e.g., BOTH-OF-US, BOTH-OF-THEM, CL: 1 person).
    10. Use inflection to indicate temporal markers (e.g., movement, non-manual signals).

  1. Demonstrate command of the structure of standard ASL grammar and usage when signing (live and published).

    1. Raise hands into signing frame space.
    2. Use frequently occurring conjunctions (e.g.,KNOW, MOVE-ON, THAT; head nods, eye gazes).
    3. Understand how referents can be used to indicate determiners, pronouns, conjunctions (e.g., indexing on non-dominant hand).
    4. Produce and expand complete simple and compound declarative, interrogative, imperative, and exclamatory sentences in response to prompts.
    5. Use common, proper, and possessive nouns. (e.g., name signs, open palm to demonstrate possessiveness).
    6. Use temporal signs to convey a sense of past, present, and future (e.g., YESTERDAY I EAT, EAT I nms-NOT-YET).
    7. Use frequently occurring descriptive classifiers and other adjectives (e.g., DCL, ECL, SCL, ICL, BCL).
    8. Produce simple sentences with indicating verbs using eye gaze and locative signs.
    9. Use frequently occurring conjunctions (e.g., PLUS, OTHER, THAT, list form, head nod).
    10. Use numerical incorporation.
    11. Use the manipulation of non-manual markers in topicalization.
    12. Expand and rearrange sentences from a range of sentence types.

  1. Demonstrate command of the structure of standard ASL grammar and usage when signing (live and published).

    1. Maintain hands in signing frame space.
    2. Use frequently occurring conjunctions (e.g., WHY-Q, WRONG, FINISH, HAPPEN).
    3. Manipulate spatial referents when incorporating frequently occurring prepositions through classifiers, eye gaze, and locative signs (e.g., role shifting, CL: 5 BIG-HOUSE-nearby, CL:5 BIG-HOUSE-far away).
    4. Produce simple and complex sentences with indicating verbs using plural pronouns as referents. (e.g., I-GIVE-THEM, THEY-TOLD-US).
    5. Produce simple and complex conditional sentences.
    6. Produce rhetorical questions.
    7. Evaluate sentences for semantic appropriateness (e.g., DAD DANCE WITH HAMBURGER).
    8. Create complex sentences to indicate a sequence of events and use step-by-step instructions using correct sequence markers (e.g., transition words).

  1. Demonstrate command of the structure of standard ASL grammar and usage when signing (live and published).

    1. Utilize full breadth of signing frame space.
    2. Use frequently occurring descriptive classifiers and other adjectives (e.g., BPCL, LCL, MCL).
    3. Use frequently occurring conjunctions (e.g., PLUS, OTHER, FOR-FOR).
    4. Use frequently occurring phonology through depictions, eye gaze, and locative signs (e.g., VEHICLE-cl NEXT-TO HOUSE, HURT-ON-TUMMY).
    5. Create compound sentences with indicating verbs to demonstrate sequences of events (e.g., THEY-GAVE-US-I-GIVE- HER).
    6. Produce compound sentences using negations or as conditionals.
    7. Can produce, evaluate, and ensure subject-verb- object agreement.

  1. Demonstrate command of the structure of standard ASL grammar and usage when signing (live and published).

  1. Demonstrate command of the structure of standard ASL grammar and usage when signing (live and published ).

  1. Demonstrate command of the standard ASL grammar and usage when signing (live and published).

  1. Demonstrate command of the standard ASL grammar and usage when signing (live and published).Use knowledge of language and its structure when signing and viewing (live and published).

  1. Demonstrate command of the standard ASL grammar and usage when signing (live and published).

  1. Demonstrate command of the standard ASL grammar and usage when signing (live and published).

  1. Demonstrate command of the standard ASL grammar and usage when signing (live and published).

  1. Demonstrate command of the standard ASL grammar and usage when signing (live and published).

  1. Demonstrate command of the standard ASL grammar and usage when signing (live and published).

Knowledge of Language
  1. (Begins in grade 2.)

  1. (Begins in grade 2.)

  1. Use knowledge of language and its structure when signing and viewing (live and published).

    1. Compare formal and informal uses of American Sign Language.
  1. Use knowledge of language and its structure when signing and viewing (live and published).

    1. Choose fingerspelling, signs, and phrases for effect.
    2. Recognize and observe differences between the structure of live and published American Sign Language.

  1. Use knowledge of language and its structure when signing and viewing (live and published).

    1. Choose signs and phrases to convey ideas precisely.
    2. Choose non-manual markers, fingerspelling, and sign choice for effect.
    3. Differentiate between contexts that call for formal ASL (e.g., presenting ideas) and situations where informal discourse is appropriate (e.g., small-group discussion).

  1. Use knowledge of language and its structure when signing and viewing (live and published).

    1. Expand, combine, and reduce sentences for meaning, viewer interest, and style.
    2. Combine and contrast the varieties of ASL (e.g., regional accents, registers) used in stories, dramas, or poems.

  1. Use knowledge of language and its structure when signing and viewing (live and published).

    1. Vary sentence patterns for meaning, viewer interest, and style.
    2. Recognize variations from standard ASL in their own and others' signing and identify and use strategies to improve expression in conventional language.
  1. Use knowledge of language and its structure when signing and viewing (live and published).

    1. Vary sentence patterns for meaning, viewer interest, and style.
    2. fingerspell correctly and use a chaining approach when introducing new academic signs.
  1. Use knowledge of language and its structure when signing and viewing (live and published).

    1. Vary sentence patterns for meaning, viewer interest, and style.
    2. fingerspell chaining approach when introducing new academic sign.
  1. Apply knowledge of language to understand how language functions in different contexts (e.g., regional, historical and cultural variation in signs), to make effective choices for meaning or style, and to comprehend more fully when viewing.

    1. Produce and edit work so it conforms to the guidelines of academic text publications (i.e., see Deaf Studies Digital Journal for guidelines).
  1. Apply knowledge of language to understand how language functions in different contexts (e.g., regional, historical and cultural variation in signs), to make effective choices for meaning or style, and to comprehend more fully when viewing.

    1. Produce and edit work so it conforms to the guidelines of academic text publications (i.e., see Deaf Studies Digital Journal for guidelines).
  1. Apply knowledge of language to understand how language functions in different contexts, to make effective choices for meaning or style, and to comprehend more fully when viewing or producing.

    1. Vary syntax for effect, consulting references for guidance as needed; apply an understanding of syntax to the study of complex texts when viewing.
  1. Apply knowledge of language to understand how language functions in different contexts, to make effective choices for meaning or style, and to comprehend more fully when viewing or producing.

    1. Vary syntax for effect, consulting references for guidance as needed; apply an understanding of syntax to the study of complex texts when viewing.
Vocabulary Acquisition and Use
  1. Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning signs, fingerspelled words, and phrases based on kindergarten viewing and content.

    1. Use context to identify the meaning of unknown signs, fingerspelled words, and phrases.
    2. Identify new meanings for similar signs and apply them accurately (e.g., SAME vs. LIKE, BUT vs. DIFFERENT).
    3. Use the most frequently occurring inflections (e.g., SIT-FOR-A-LONG-TIME, SHE-GIVES-HIM) as a clue to the meaning of an unknown sign.
    4. Use the most frequently occurring affixes and compound signs (e.g., LAW-PERSON, WOOD+CUT-PERSON, TREE+HOUSE) as a clue to the meaning of an unknown sign.
  2. With guidance and support from adults, explore sign relationships and nuances in sign meanings.

    1. Use role-shifting and/or non-manual markers to represent categories (e.g., shapes, food) to gain a sense of the concepts the categories represent.
    2. Demonstrate understanding of frequently occurring verbs and adjectives by relating them to their opposites (antonyms) (e.g., WANT/DON'T-WANT, LIKE/DON'T-LIKE).
    3. Distinguish shades of meaning among verbs describing the same general action (e.g., WALK-quickly, WALK-slowly, WALK-clumsily).
  3. Use signs and phrases acquired through conversations, signing and being signed to, and responding to texts.

  1. Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning signs, fingerspelled words, and phrases based on grade 1 viewing and content, choosing flexibly from an array of strategies.

    1. Use sentence-level context as clue to identify the meaning of unknown signs, fingerspelled words, and phrases.
    2. Determine the meaning of the new sign formed when a known prefix is added to a known sign (e.g., HAPPY/NOT-HAPPY, TELL/AGAIN-TELL).
    3. Identify frequently occurring sign families and their inflectional forms (e.g., large circular motion: long duration, brain area: DREAM, THINK, PONDER).
    4. Use knowledge of the meaning of individual signs to predict the meaning of compound signs(e.g., BIRDHOUSE, BOOKSHELF, DINING-ROOM)
    5. Determine meanings of signs based on similar features (e.g., nose/beaks: DUCK, BIRD, EAGLE, PARROT).
  2. With guidance and support from adults, demonstrate understanding of sign relationships and nuances in sign meanings.

    1. Demonstrate understanding of sign families by relating them to one another based on commonalities in parameters (e.g., CHAIRPERSON, BOSS, CHIEF or HAPPY, INSPIRED, EXCITED, DEPRESSED)
    2. Demonstrate understanding of frequently occurring verbs and adjectives by relating them to their opposites (antonyms) (e.g., want/don't want, like/don't like).
    3. Identify real-life connections between signs and their use.
    4. Distinguish shades of meaning through non-manual markers (e.g., WORK-LONG-TIME nmm: teeth vs. WORK-LONG-TIME nmm: pursed lips).
    5. With teacher scaffolding, understand and use figurative language versus literal language using metaphors, similes, and analogies (e.g., EAT-YOUR-WORDS, EYES-POP-OUT).
  3. Use signs and phrases acquired through conversations, signing and being signed to, and responding to texts, including using frequently occurring conjunctions and determiners to signal simple relationships (e.g., DET-the, CL: 3-LIST).

  1. Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning signs, fingerspelled words, and phrases based grade 2 viewing and content, choosing flexibly from an array of strategies.

    1. Use sentence-level context to identify the meaning of unknown signs, fingerspelled words, and phrases.
    2. Identify new meanings for similar signs and apply them accurately (e.g., TURN-OFF TV, SWITCH-OFF-LIGHTS).
    3. Use knowledge of the meaning of individual signs to predict the meaning of compound signs (e.g., UP-TO-YOU is a blend of THINK+YOURSELF).
    4. Use glossaries and beginning dictionaries, both print and digital, to determine or clarify the meaning of words and phrases.
  2. Demonstrate understanding of sign relationships and nuances in sign meanings.

    1. Identify real-life connections between words and their use (e.g., describe foods that are SPICY, MUSHY).
    2. Distinguish shades of meaning among closely related inflectional verbs (e.g.,TOSS, THROW, HURL) and closely related adjectives through use of depiction and nonmanual markers (e.g., CL: 1 YOUNG-PERSON, CL: BENT 1: OLD PERSON).
    3. With teacher guidance and support, use figurative language versus literal language using metaphors, similes, and analogies.
    4. Manipulate phonological parameters to play on signs (e.g., SMALL-WORLD with pinky, UNDERSTAND with four fingers or pinky to show intensity).
  3. Use signs and phrases acquired through conversations, signing and being signed to, and responding to texts, including using adjectives and adverbs to describe (e.g., IF HAPPEN OTHER HAPPY, MEANS ME HAPPY).

  1. Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning sign, fingerspelled words, and phrases based on grade 3 signing and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies.

    1. Use sentence-level context to identify the meaning of unknown, signs, fingerspelled words, and phrases.
    2. Determine the meaning of the new sign formed when a known non-manual affix is added to a known sign (e.g., AGREE nms: NOT).
    3. Use glossaries or beginning dictionaries, both print and digital, to determine or clarify the precise meaning of key signs and phrases.
  2. Demonstrate understanding of sign relationships and nuances in sign meanings.

    1. Distinguish literal and nonliteral meanings of signs and phrases in context (e.g., READ-MIND, STUCK).
    2. Identify real-life connections between signs and their use (e.g., describe people who are WOW-FRIENDLY, HELP-HELP).
    3. Distinguish shades of meaning among related words that describe states of mind or degrees of certainty (e.g., KNEW, BELIEVE, SUSPECT, HS: 1 THINK, two hands HS: 1 THINK).
  3. Acquire and use accurately grade-appropriate conversational, general academic, and domain-specific signs and phrases, including those that signal spatial and temporal relationships (e.g., JUST-NOW CAR ALMOST HIT BIKE, LUCKY CL: 3 BIKE-STOP-QUICK).

  1. Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning signs, fingerspelled words, and phrases based on grade 4 viewing and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies.

    1. Use context (e.g., definitions, examples, or restatements in text) as a clue to the meaning of a sign, fingerspelled word, or phrase.
    2. Use common, grade-appropriate prefixes, suffixes, non-manual markers, and iconicity of signs as clues to the meaning of a sign (e.g., NMS: head shaking no, root LSF sign TO-LOOK comes from "chercher" in French, CAT/WHISKERS).
    3. Consult reference materials (e.g., dictionaries, glossaries, thesauruses), both print and digital, to find the production of and determine or clarify the precise meaning of key signs and phrases.
  2. Demonstrate understanding of figurative language, sign relationships, and nuances in sign meanings.

    1. Explain the meaning of simple similes and metaphors (e.g., BRAIN+CRACK, MIND+BLOW) in context.
    2. Demonstrate understanding of signs by relating them to their opposites (antonyms) and to words with similar but not identical meanings (synonyms) (e.g., IMPROVE/DECLINE; INCREASE/DECREASE).
    3. Demonstrate understanding of signs by relating them to their sign families based on sign locations, handshapes, etc. (e.g., index finger signs often mean line of thought [WONDER, THOUGHT+DISAPPEAR]; middle finger signs often mean feelings [PITY, SYMPATHY, EXCITE]).
  3. Acquire and use accurately grade-appropriate general academic and domain-specific signs, fingerspelled words, and phrases, including those that signal precise actions, emotions, or states of being (e.g., PUZZLED, STUMPED) and that are basic to a particular topic (e.g., ANIMALS, PRESERVE, and DANGER+SHRINK) when discussing animal preservation).

  1. Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning signs, fingerspelled words, and phrases based on grade 5 viewing and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies.

    1. Use context (e.g., cause/effect relationships and comparisons in text) as a clue to the meaning of a sign, fingerspelled word, or phrase.
    2. Use common, grade-appropriate prefixes, suffixes, non-manual markers, and iconicity of signs as clues to the meaning of a sign.
    3. Consult reference materials (e.g., dictionaries, glossaries, thesauruses), both print and digital, to find the production of and determine or clarify the precise meaning of key signs and phrases.
  2. Demonstrate understanding of figurative language, sign relationships, and nuances in sign meanings.

    1. Interpret figurative language, including similes and metaphors, in context.
    2. Use the relationship between particular signs (e.g., synonyms, antonyms, homonyms [HUNGRY/WISH]) to better understand each of the signs.
    3. Interpret sentences that use the same signs and different expressions and tones to reflect different shades of meaning.
  3. Acquire and use accurately grade-appropriate general academic and domain-specific signs, fingerspelled words, and phrases, including those that signal contrast, addition, and other logical relationships (e.g., UNDERSTAND++, BUT, B-U-T, #BUT, CAN, RESULT-WHAT-Q).

  1. Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning signs, fingerspelled words, spatial use, and phrases based on grade 6 viewing and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies.

    1. Use context (e.g., cause/effect relationships and comparisons in text) as a clue to the meaning of a sign, fingerspelled word, classifier, or phrase.
    2. Consult general and specialized reference materials (e.g., general dictionaries and content-specific references), both print and digital, to determine and clarify its meaning.
    3. Verify the meaning of a sign, depiction, or phrase (e.g., by checking the inferred meaning in context or other accessible resource).
  2. Demonstrate understanding of figurative language, sign relationships, and nuances in sign meanings

    1. Interpret figurative language in context (e.g., personification, allusions, irony, and puns).
    2. Use relationships between particular concepts/signs (e.g., cause/effect, part/whole, item/category, synonym/antonym, analogy) to better understand each sign.
    3. Distinguish among connotations (associations) of signs with similar denotations (definitions) (e.g., POLITE, WITH-MANNERS, FORMAL, DIPLOMATIC).
  3. Acquire and use accurately grade-appropriate general academic and domain-specific signs, fingerspelled words, and phrases; gather vocabulary knowledge when considering signs, fingerspelled words, or phrases important to comprehension or expression.

  1. Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning signs fingerspelled words, spatial use, and phrases based on grade 7 viewing and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies.

    1. Use context (e.g., cause/effect relationships and comparisons in text) as a clue to the meaning of a sign, fingerspelled word, classifiers, or phrase.
    2. Consult general and specialized reference materials (e.g., general dictionaries and content-specific references), both print and digital, to determine and clarify its meaning.
    3. Verify the meaning of a sign, depiction, or phrase (e.g., by checking the inferred meaning in context or other accessible resource).
  2. Demonstrate understanding of figurative language, sign relationships, and nuances in sign meanings.

    1. Interpret figurative language in context (e.g., literary, biblical, and mythological allusions).
    2. Use relationships between particular sign choices (e.g., synonym/antonym, analogy) to better understand each of the concepts/signs.
    3. Distinguish among the connotations (associations) of signs with similar denotations (definitions) (e.g., RESPECT, HONOR, LOOK-UP).
  3. Acquire and use accurately grade-appropriate general academic and domain-specific signs, fingerspelled words, and phrases; gather vocabulary knowledge when considering signs, fingerspelled words, or phrases important to comprehension or expression.

  1. Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning signs, fingerspelled words, spatial use, and phrases based on grade 8 viewing and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies.

    1. Use context (e.g., cause/effect relationships and comparisons in text) as a clue to the meaning of a signs, fingerspelled word, classifier, or phrase.
    2. Consult general and specialized reference materials (e.g., general dictionaries and content-specific references), both print and digital, to determine and clarify its meaning.
    3. Verify the meaning of a sign, depiction, or phrase (e.g., by checking the inferred meaning in context or other accessible resource).
  2. Demonstrate understanding of figurative language, sign relationships, and nuances in sign meanings.

    1. Interpret figurative language in context.
    2. Use relationships between particular sign choices to better understand each of the concepts/signs.
    3. Distinguish among the connotations (associations) of signs with similar denotations (definitions).
    4. Use common, phonology awareness as clues to the meaning of a word.
  3. Acquire and use accurately grade-appropriate general academic and domain-specific signs, fingerspelled words, and phrases; gather vocabulary knowledge when considering signs, fingerspelled words, or phrases important to comprehension or expression.

  1. Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning signs, fingerspelled signs, and phrases based on grades 9-10 viewing and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies.Use context (e.g., the overall meaning of a sentence, paragraph, or text; a sign's position or function in a sentence) as a clue to the meaning of a sign or phrase.

    1. Use context (e.g.,the overall meaning of a sentence, paragraph, or text; a sign's position or function in a sentence) as a clue to the meaning of a sign or phrase.
    2. Identify and correctly use patterns of sign changes that indicate different meanings or parts of speech (e.g., inflections in ANALYZE, ANALYSIS).
    3. Consult general and specialized reference materials (e.g., dictionaries, content-specific references), both print and digital, to find the parameters of a sign or determine or clarify its precise meaning, part of speech, or etymology.
    4. Verify the preliminary determination of the meaning of a sign or phrase (e.g., by checking the inferred meaning in context or in a dictionary).
  2. Demonstrate understanding of figurative language, sign relationships, and nuances in sign meanings.

    1. Interpret figures of speech (e.g., euphemism, oxymoron) in context and analyze their role in the text.
    2. Analyze nuances in the meaning of signs with similar denotations.
  3. Acquire and use accurately general academic and domain-specific signs, fingerspelled words, and phrases sufficient for viewing and signing at the college and career readiness level; demonstrate independence in gathering vocabulary knowledge when considering a sign or phrase important to comprehension or expression.

  1. Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning signs, fingerspelled signs, and phrases based on grades 9-10 viewing and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies.Use context (e.g., the overall meaning of a sentence, paragraph, or text; a sign's position or function in a sentence) as a clue to the meaning of a sign or phrase.

    1. Use context (e.g.,the overall meaning of a sentence, paragraph, or text; a sign's position or function in a sentence) as a clue to the meaning of a sign or phrase.
    2. Identify and correctly use patterns of sign changes that indicate different meanings or parts of speech (e.g., inflections in ANALYZE, ANALYSIS).
    3. Consult general and specialized reference materials (e.g., dictionaries, content-specific references), both print and digital, to find the parameters of a sign or determine or clarify its precise meaning, part of speech, or etymology.
    4. Verify the preliminary determination of the meaning of a sign or phrase (e.g., by checking the inferred meaning in context or in a dictionary).
  2. Demonstrate understanding of figurative language, sign relationships, and nuances in sign meanings.

    1. Interpret figures of speech (e.g., euphemism, oxymoron) in context and analyze their role in the text.
    2. Analyze nuances in the meaning of signs with similar denotations.
  3. Acquire and use accurately general academic and domain-specific signs, fingerspelled words, and phrases sufficient for viewing and signing at the college and career readiness level; demonstrate independence in gathering vocabulary knowledge when considering a sign or phrase important to comprehension or expression.

  1. Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning signs and phrases based on grades 11-12 viewing and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies.

    1. Use context (e.g., the overall meaning of a sentence, paragraph, or text; a sign's position or function in a sentence) as a clue to the meaning of a sign or phrase.
    2. Identify and correctly use patterns of sign changes that indicate different meanings or parts of speech (e.g., DCL in describing a plush chair, DCL in describing a person sitting comfortably in a plush chair)  
    3. Consult general and specialized reference materials (e.g., dictionaries, glossaries, thesauruses), both print and digital, to find the parameters of a sign or determine or clarify its precise meaning, part of speech, etymology , or standard usage.
    4. Verify the preliminary determination of the meaning of a sign or phrase (e.g., by checking the inferred meaning in context or in a dictionary).
  2. Demonstrate understanding of figurative language, sign relationships, and nuances in word meanings. 

    1. Interpret figures of speech (e.g., hyperbole, paradox) in context and analyze their role in the text.
    2. Analyze nuances in the meaning of signs with similar denotations.
  3. Acquire and use accurately general academic and domain-specific signs, fingerspelled words, and phrases sufficient for viewing and signing at the college and career readiness level; demonstrate independence in gathering vocabulary knowledge when considering a sign or phrase important to comprehension or expression.

  1. Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning signs and phrases based on grades 11-12 viewing and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies.

    1. Use context (e.g., the overall meaning of a sentence, paragraph, or text; a sign's position or function in a sentence) as a clue to the meaning of a sign or phrase.
    2. Identify and correctly use patterns of sign changes that indicate different meanings or parts of speech (e.g., DCL in describing a plush chair, DCL in describing a person sitting comfortably in a plush chair)  
    3. Consult general and specialized reference materials (e.g., dictionaries, glossaries, thesauruses), both print and digital, to find the parameters of a sign or determine or clarify its precise meaning, part of speech, etymology, or standard usage.
    4. Verify the preliminary determination of the meaning of a sign or phrase (e.g., by checking the inferred meaning in context or in a dictionary).
  2. Demonstrate understanding of figurative language, sign relationships, and nuances in word meanings.

    1. Interpret figures of speech (e.g., hyperbole, paradox) in context and analyze their role in the text.
    2. Analyze nuances in the meaning of signs with similar denotations.
  3. Acquire and use accurately general academic and domain-specific sign, fingerspelled words, and phrases sufficient for viewing and signing at the college and career readiness level; demonstrate independence in gathering vocabulary knowledge when considering a signs or phrase important to comprehension or expression.

Fingerspelling and Fingerreading Standards

The following standards define what students should understand and be able to do by the end of each grade. The College and Career Readiness Anchor Standards and the Grade-level Standards are necessary complements-the former providing broad standards, the latter providing additional specificity.

Kindergartners Grade 1 Students Grade 2 Students Grade 3 Students Grade 4 Students Grade 5 Students Grade 6 Students Grade 7 Students Grade 8 Students Grade 9 Students Grade 10 Students Grade 11 Students Grade 12 Students
Key Ideas
  1. Demonstrate understanding of ways fingerspelled signs are formed and their uses.

    1. Recognize that fingerspelled words are represented by specific sequences of handshapes produced from in to out.
    2. Connect fingerspelling with English in print.
    3. Recognize that some signs have fingerspelling equivalents.

  1. Demonstrate understanding of ways fingerspelled signs are formed and their uses.

    1. Use knowledge that every word spelled consecutively is separated by a brief hold.
    2. Understand the role of fingerspelling in ASL and the multiple uses of fingerspelling (e.g., emphasis #NO! and translation "bus" into B-U-S or #BUS).

  1. Demonstrate understanding of ways fingerspelled signs are formed and their uses.

    1. Understand the role of fingerspelling in ASL and the multiple uses of fingerspelling (e.g., codeswitching).
    2. Use fingerspelled words for emphasis (e.g., #FUN, #WHAT).
    3. Engage in creative use of fingerspelling (e.g., fs F-A-L-L-I-N-G L-E-A-F)

  1. Demonstrate understanding of ways fingerspelled signs are formed and their uses.

    1. Apply understanding of partition and movement of fingerreading units through recognition of patterns and movement (e.g., #MEAN all in neutral movement while #HAPPY requires both neutral and lower movement as well; smooth as double-letters "PP").

  1. Demonstrate understanding of initialized and lexicalized forms of fingerspelled words.

    1. Use fingerspelling to highlight a word in presentation or discourse for emphasis.
    2. Understand that words are fingerspelled when there are no sign equivalents (e.g., proper nouns, technology terms, vegetables).
    3. Use fingerspelling to highlight titles of works (e.g., fs-S-N-O-W fs-W-H-I-T-E; Valli's fs-D-A-N-D-E-L-I-O-N-S).
    4. Recognize that fingerspelling can use space to establish referents and/or to clarify meaning.

  1. Demonstrate understanding of ways fingerspelled signs are formed and their uses.

    1. Use pacing in fingerspelling to highlight a phrase in presentation or discourse for emphasis (e.g., E-V-O-L-V-E-D, B-A-W-L-E-D          #EYES O-U-T).
    2. Use fingerspelled words when there are no sign equivalents (e.g., proper nouns, technology terms, vegetables).
    3. Recognize that fingerspelled words are not always for emphasis and use both the fingerspelled word and the sign interchangeably (e.g., fs-O-N-L-I-N-E/ONLINE).
    4. Understand that fingerspelling can use space to establish referents and/or to clarify meaning.

  1. Understand that fingerspelling is used for various purposes, formally and informally.

    1. Use fingerspelled words for emphasis though pacing, chunking, and/or spatial (e.g., comparing and contrasting two ideas using two different spaces-R-I-C-H in upper right corner with P-O-O-R and use that as an established reference).
    2. Use fingerspelled words when there are no sign equivalents.

  1. Understand that fingerspelling is used for various purposes, formally and informally.

    1. Use fingerspelled words for emphasis though pacing, chunking, and/or spatial.
    2. Use fingerspelled words when there are no sign equivalents.
  1. Understand that fingerspelling is used for various purposes, formally and informally.

    1. Use fingerspelled words for emphasis though pacing, chunking, and/or spatial.
    2. Use fingerspelled words when there are no sign equivalents.
  1. (Ends Grade 8)

  1. (Ends Grade 8)

  1. (Ends Grade 8)

  1. (Ends Grade 8)

Initialized and Lexicalized Forms
  1. Demonstrate understanding of initialized and lexicalized forms of fingerspelled words.

    1. Can see connections between initialized forms and alphabet letters (e.g., name signs, WATER, FAMILY).
    2. Can fingerspell words, including short words and names of people or places (e.g., own name, fs T-A-R-G-E-T, fs J-O-H-N).
    3. Produce lexical fingerspelling (e.g., #BACK, #OFF, #FIX).

  1. Demonstrate understanding of initialized and lexicalized forms of fingerspelled words.

    1. Compare and contrast "families" of ASL signs that share the same ASL handshape configuration as opposed to initialized signs (e.g., HS F: CAT, STICK, BUTTON, and HAIR vs. FAMILY, FOREIGN, FURNITURE).
    2. Use common high-frequency lexicalized fingerspelling (e.g., #WHEN, #WHAT, #BUS).

  1. Demonstrate understanding of initialized and lexicalized forms of fingerspelled words.

    1. Use common high-frequency lexicalized fingerspelling (e.g., #BANK, #CASH, #STYLE).

  1. Demonstrate understanding of initialized and lexicalized forms of fingerspelled words.

    1. Can fingerspell words as lexical signs (e.g., #WHAT, #BACK #OK, #MOOD).
    2. Use fingerspelling for abbreviations (e.g., #REF, #VP, #E-MAIL, #APT).

  1. Demonstrate understanding of initialized and lexicalized forms of fingerspelled words.

    1. Connect initialized forms and alphabet letters to their equivalent in English (e.g., B-T on chest = Board of Trustees).

  1. Demonstrate understanding of initialized and lexicalized forms of fingerspelled words.

    1. Connect initialized forms and alphabet letters to their equivalent in English.

  1. Demonstrate understanding of initialized and lexicalized forms of fingerspelled words.

    1. Connect initialized forms and alphabet letters to their equivalent in English.

  1. Demonstrate understanding of initialized and lexicalized forms of fingerspelled words.

    1. Connect initialized forms and alphabet letters to their equivalent in English.
  1. Demonstrate understanding of initialized and lexicalized forms of fingerspelled words.

    1. Connect initialized forms and alphabet letters to their equivalent in English.
  1. (Ends Grade 8)

  1. (Ends Grade 8)

  1. (Ends Grade 8)

  1. (Ends Grade 8)

Vocabulary Acquisition and Use
  1. Know and apply grade-level parameters and sign analysis skills in decoding signs both in isolation and in context.

    1. Use signs to inquire for the fingerspelling of those signs (e.g., TABLE to get fs T-A-B-L-E).

  1. Know and apply grade-level parameters and sign analysis skills in decoding signs both in isolation and in context.

    1. Fingerspell untaught words drawing on phonemic awareness and conventions.
    2. Decode fingerspelled words in context of other parameters (e.g., NMS: #WHAT-q).
    3. Decode regularly fingerspelled letter combinations (e.g., wh, th, ph).

  1. Know and apply grade-level parameters and sign analysis skills in decoding signs both in isolation and in context.

    1. Fingerspell longer words and phrases following correct contour as new ASL and English lexicon expands (e.g., fs- G-O-V-E-R-N-M-E-N-T, fs-R-A-I-N-I-N-G C-A-T-S A-N-D D-O-G-S
    2. Can demonstrate skill in memorizing chunks of fingerreading units (including lexicalized fingerspelling) when translating to written English as content-appropriate (e.g., increasing length of fingerspelled word #HAT to #PLAY/ER to #REST/AU/RANT).

  1. Know and apply grade-level parameters and sign analysis skills in decoding signs both in isolation and in context.

    1. Fingerspell longer words and phrases following correct contour as new ASL and English lexicon expands.

  1. Know and apply grade-level parameters and sign analysis skills in decoding signs both in isolation and in context.

    1. Fingerspell longer words and phrases following correct contour as new ASL and English lexicon expands.
    2. Use chaining strategy when introducing new vocabulary words and signs (e.g., signs a word-WISE, fingerspells fs-W-I-S-E, signs WISE).

  1. Know and apply grade-level parameters and sign analysis skills in decoding signs both in isolation and in context.

    1. Fingerspell longer words and phrases following correct contour as new ASL and English lexicon expands.
    2. Recognize that some signs are compounded with signs and lexicalized fingerspelling (e.g., #SUN+GLASSES, BACK+#YARD).
    3. Recognize that some words are fingerspelled due to domain-specific definition (e.g., H2O - fs-H-Y-D-R-O-G-E-N fs-O-X-I-D-E).

  1. Know and apply grade-level parameters and sign analysis skills in decoding signs both in isolation and in context.

    1. Use signs compounded with signs and lexicalized fingerspelling.
    2. Recognize that some words are fingerspelled due to domain-specific definition.

  1. Know and apply grade-level parameters and sign analysis skills in decoding signs both in isolation and in context.

    1. Use signs compounded with signs and lexicalized fingerspelling.
    2. Recognize that some words are fingerspelled due to domain-specific definition.
  1. Know and apply grade-level parameters and sign analysis skills in decoding signs both in isolation and in context.

    1. Use signs compounded with signs and lexicalized fingerspelling.
    2. Recognize that some words are fingerspelled due to domain-specific definition.
  1. (Ends Grade 8)

  1. (Ends Grade 8)

  1. (Ends Grade 8)

  1. (Ends Grade 8)