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English Center CoordinatorChristopher Heuer, Professor EnglishChristopher.Heuer@gallaudet.edu
STAMP Center CoordinatorSusanna Henderson, Lecturer II STAMPstamp.firstname.lastname@example.org
ASL Center CoordinatorRobin Massey, ASL Departmentaslcenter@gallaudet.edu
The following guidelines are based on information found in the APA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers, 6th Edition, which is published by the Modern Language Association of America. If you need information that is not covered in this handout, please refer to the MLA Handbook or ask an English Coach at the English Center.
Always check with your instructor to see if he or she has any different requirements or specifications for your paper.
APA guidelines require that the writer give credit for ALL information whether it be a direct quote or a paraphrase. Generally, you are required to give the following information: author, year of publication, and page number for any direct quote. For paraphrases, you are only required to give the author and year of publication, though it is suggested that you also provide the page number. You should use p. (or pp. for multiple pages) before the page numbers in in-text citations.
If there is no publication date, cite the author’s last name followed by a comma and n.d. (for no date).
If you include the author's name as part of the sentence, just give the year in parenthesis directly after the author's name, and put the page number in parenthesis after the quote.
If you include the author's name and date of publication as part of the sentence in which you use a direct quote, you should put the page number in parenthesis after the quote. If you include the author's name and date as part of a paraphrased sentence, you don't have to put anything additional in parenthesis. You can, if you chose to, provide the page number after the paraphrased information, but the page number is not required.
If you refer to the same text more than once within one paragraph, give the author's name, date, and page number only the first time you cite the source. After the first time, just give the author's name and page number (if it is different from the prior page number). If you cite the same text in two different paragraphs, you need to include the full reference information in both paragraphs.
<tr"> First reference to a source "Gallaudet's Deaf community earned the respect of deaf communities around the world during their 1988 DPN Protest" (Harding, 1988, p. 86)
If you are using several different works to illustrate one point, you may find it necessary to cite two or more works written by different authors with different dates. In that situation, organize the information alphabetically by the authors' last names, and separate each block of information with a semicolon. Put all the names inside one set of parenthesis.
When a source has two or three authors, you should give both (all) authors' last names. Within the parenthetical citation, use & between the authors' names. If you use their names in the sentence, just write out and put 'and' between their names.
For a source with three, four or five authors, you cite in the following way:
If a source has 6 or more authors, use the cite in order: (Direct Quote) first author's last name, et al., the date and page number; (Paraphrase) first author's last name, et al., the date.
To cite a group author (e.g. association, organization, or government agency) you should spell out the full name for the first reference, give the abbreviation that you will use in brackets ([ ]), then use the abbreviation for later references.
Works with no Authors
If there is a work with no author named, cite the first few words of the title. Use quotation marks around the title of an article or chapter; italicize the title of a book, brochure, or report.
If the author is listed as "Anonymous," cite the word Anonymous followed by a comma and the date.
Classic Prose (like a novel or a play) : Since classic works are generally available in several different books, you will need to include more than just page numbers in a reference. You may also want to include the chapter number, book number, act number, scene number, stanza number and/or line number. You should give the page number first, followed by a semi-colon, then give other identifying information with commas separating each item.
Poetry and Classic Verse Plays (like Shakespeare's plays) : For poems, you should omit the page number altogether. You should instead cite by using the division number (act, scene, canto, book, part) and the line number, with periods separating all the numbers. If there are no line numbers in the poem, simply cite the title of the poem in quotation marks.
Basically, you cite information from electronic sources the same way that you would cite from a book, article, or interview. If the author is identified, use the author's name for in-text citations. If the electronic source provides page numbers, use those in your in-text citation as well.
If an electronic source has paragraph numbers instead of page numbers, use them for in-text citations as you would use page numbers, but with two differences: use a comma followed by one space after the name and use the abbreviation par. for a reference to one paragraph (or pars. for a reference to two or more paragraphs).
You may find electronic information that does not have page or paragraph numbers at all. In this situation, you would simply cite the author's name in parenthesis after your quoted or paraphrased information.
If you are citing from an electronic source that does not provide an author's name, use the title of the source for your in-text citations instead of the author's name. Put the title in quotation marks, and abbreviate long titles to one main word of the title according to how it is listed in your Works Cited page.
Quotes of 40 Words
If your quote is more than 40 words, indent the entire paragraph 5 spaces on a separate line and then begin the quote. Continue the double space rule. Do not use quotation marks. Cite it without the period.
Gallaudet University received a lot of publicity during the 1988 DPN Rallies. It was a time when deaf people learned about the strength of their community. According to Jack Gannon (1989):
The student protest that shut down Gallaudet University the week of March 6-13, 1988, accomplished far more than just the selection of the world's first deaf university president. It proved, convincingly, that deaf people could band together effectively for a common cause and succeed. The protest experiences taught deaf people about the needs and values of being more assertive.
It also reaffirmed that the deaf population has a voice worth listening to, and that they will fight to be heard by Gallaudet's Board of Trustees.
Personal interviews and personal communications (email, group discussions, electronic bulletin boards, telephone conversations) are NOT mentioned at the end of the paper on the list of references. However, they are cited in-text throughout the paper. For personal communication, you should give the author's full name ( first and middle initials followed by last name), the kind of communication, followed by the date of communication.
For a paper done in MLA documentation style, the reference page is called and will be titled as "Works Cited." Here on your Works Cited page, you acknowledge your sources by listing them in an alphabetical order by author's last name on the last page of your paper. Although the Works Cited page appears at the end of your paper, you will draft this section in advance, so that you will have the appropriate information to cite your paper properly.
The general formatting rules for your Works Cited page are as follows:
General format for citing articles and other publications from periodicals is as follows:
If an article has no author or by an anonymous author, begin the entry with the title. Alphabetize the entry by the main word of the title, ignoring any initial A, An, or The.
If a book has one author, list by last name, first name and middle initial (if any). If a book has two or three authors, the subsequent authors will be listed by first name, middle initial, and last name, each name separated by a comma.
If a book has more than three authors, you list the first author normally as above, and add et al. (meaning "and others"). Optionally, you may give all names in full in order in which they appear on the title page.
If a book has no author or by an anonymous author, begin the entry with the title. Alphabetize the entry by the main word of the title, ignoring any initial A, An, or The.
REF: Electronic Sources
If you are citing from an online book or publication, you should include all of the information that you would include for printed books. After this standard information, you should include the date you found the information on the world wide web (the date of access) and the web address (URL) where you found the information.
The basic citing format for electronic sources is as follows:
REF: Nonprint Media
For most nonprint media, there are six main parts to the reference:
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