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English Center CoordinatorChristopher Heuer, Professor EnglishChristopher.Heuer@gallaudet.edu
STAMP Center CoordinatorSusanna Henderson, Lecturer II STAMPstamp.firstname.lastname@example.org
ASL Center CoordinatorRobin Massey, ASL Departmentaslcenter@gallaudet.edu
The following guidelines are based on information found in A Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses, and Dissertations, 6th Ed. by Kate L. Turabian and from The Chicago Manual of Style, 14th Ed. Both books contain the same basic referencing systems.
Always check with your instructor to see if he or she has any different requirements or specifications for your paper.
Chicago/Turabian style papers use one of two forms of citations. The traditional Chicago style paper uses footnotes or endnotes with a bibliography. The newer Chicago/Turabian style papers use parenthetical notations with a Works Cited page at the end of the paper. However, here at Gallaudet, teachers, especially history instructors, prefer the footnotes method, not the parenthetical notation method. You should check with your instructor to find out which citation style is required.
Footnotes & Endnotes
Footnotes are the reference information that appears at the bottom of the page. Endnotes are the reference information on a separate page at the end of the body of text, just before the bibliography page. To use footnotes or endnotes, you place a superscripted number (a half space above the line, like this2) after the cited material. The superscripted number refers the reader to the matching number in the footnotes or endnotes where the full citation can be found. Both kinds of notes include complete bibliographic information when cited for the first time.
Format for footnotes or endnotes: (Footnotes and endnotes are formatted the same way).
For example, in the text of your paper, you write like this.
<td>3 Michael K. Richmond, The DPN Rallies (New York: Harper, 1990), 89.
The first time you refer to a source, give the complete information as we did in the above example. However, for the second and next reference to the same source (with the same page number) you use Ibid. If the reference is the same, but the page is not, add the page number, like this: Ibid., 44.
For subsequent reference to the same source, but later in the paper, you use an abbreviated version of the reference, using the author's last name, a shortened version of the title, and the page number. For example: Richmond, DPN, 90.
Note: If you cannot use the superscript feature on your typewriter or computer, you can use standard line spacing.
Format: Written Sources
Standard format for most written sources, for the first reference in the footnotes/endnotes is:
Format: Other Sources
The reference (bibliography) page is the alphabetized list of sources that you used to write your paper. It should be placed at the end of your paper, on a separate page. It should be titled "Bibliography," "References," or "Works Cited" depending on your teacher's specifications. Your references and your footnotes or endnotes will contain the same information, but the notes are numbered in the order they appear in your paper, while the references should be alphabetized by author's last name. Each entry will use a hanging indent (meaning the first line of the entry is at the margin, and the next line(s) is indented five spaces). Your word processing software should be able to provide the hanging indent feature.
The basic format for your reference entries is:
Clawfed, Marilyn. America's Richest People. Baltimore: Bel Air, 1976.
Congers, Milton, Jeremy Salts, and Gina Hardingham. A Look at Life in the Deaf Community. Washington, DC: Gallaudet Press, 1994.
"The Death of a Spy." People. 6 May 1988, 24-26.
Comptell, Augustine. "Are We So Beautiful?" Beauty Center, 3 Dec. 1995, 45-50.
Flax, Rosabel. Guidelines for Teaching Math to K-12. Kansas City: Kansas Department of Education, 1989. Article on-line. Available from http://www.education.gov/ks/k12/math/flax010.html.
Fradley, Paul. Interview by author, 22 Apr 1998, Washington, DC. Written notes.
Fradley, Paul. Interview by author, 22 Apr 1998, Washington, DC. E-mail.
Babson, Kent. An Incident in the life of a War Widow. PBS Video, Washington, D.C., 1996.
*If a book has two or more authors, the subsequent authors will be listed by first name and last name, each name separated by a comma.
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