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English Center CoordinatorChristopher Heuer, Professor EnglishChristopher.Heuer@gallaudet.edu
STAMP Center CoordinatorSusanna Henderson, Lecturer II STAMPstamp.firstname.lastname@example.org
ASL Center CoordinatorRobin Massey, ASL Departmentaslcenter@gallaudet.edu
The following guidelines are based on information found in the Scientific Style and Format: The CSE Manual for Authors, Editors, and Publishers, 7th edition, which is published by the Council of Science Editors. If you need information that is not covered in this handout, please refer to the CSE Handbook or ask an English Coach at the English Center.
Always check with your instructor to see if he or she has any different requirements or specifications for your paper.
CSE guidelines require that the writer give credit for ALL information whether it be a direct quote or a paraphrase. Generally, you are required to give the following information: author, year of publication, and page number for any direct quote. For paraphrases, you are only required to give the author and year of publication, though it is suggested that you also provide the page number. You should use p. (or pp. for multiple pages) before the page numbers in in-text citations.
When a source has two or three authors, you should give both (all) authors' last names.
For a source two or more works by either the same author or different authors, you cite in the following way:
Work with No Authors
The CSE does not advise use of the word "Anonymous" if no author (person or organization) is named in a work. Instead, use the first few words of the title in place of the author's name, and add an ellipsis before the date.
Organization as author
Give the name of the organization or group, followed by the year of publication.
A Specific Part of a Work
If you need to refer to a particular table, figure, or other portion of a source, it is acceptable to include this information within the parentheses, as shown:
Note: The use of a comma, followed by a space, after the date.
Occasionally you may need to cite a personal conversation with someone, an informal written communication, or the unpublished data of a colleague. Before you use personal conversations including E-mail and personal interviews, you are required to have that person's permission to include such material in your paper.
CSE Citation Systems
These documentation systems are different versions of the number format. In the citation-sequence system sources are numbered in the order in which you cited them in your paper. For example:
If you cite two or more sources at the same point in the text, use commas to separate the numbers. If three or more of your reference numbers are consecutive, use an en dash (or a hyphen) to indicate this:
If the author or publication date of a particular study is important to your discussion, add this information to the sentence:
Source: McMillan, V.E. Writing Papers in the Biological Sciences 4th ed. Bedfor/St. Mastias. NY 2006
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